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Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

Historia

Askoz ere aldatu zuen azken aipatu dut nire noiztik pertsonala zerbitzari – du jauzi eta mugetatik kanpo hazi (ditu orain 7TB bat md RAID6) eta zuen duela gutxi berreraiki batera Ubuntu Zerbitzari.

Arku ez zen akats bat. Arch Linux jada irakatsi zidan hainbeste Linux buruz (eta, beraz, nire mahaigaina beste jarraituko du). Baina, zalantzarik gabe, Arch denbora gehiago eta arreta zerbitzari batean baino gastatzen dut nahi eskatzen. Ahal izanez gero, nahiago gai pixka bat zerbitzariak ahaztu izan nahi nuke oroigarria email dio arte “um … ez da pare bat eguneratzeak begiratu behar duzu, lagun.”

Espazioa ez da doakoa – eta ez da espazio

Aukera Ubuntura migratzen Izan ere nintzen agortu zen SATA portuak, behar diren disko gogorrak konektatzeko ordenagailu gainerako portuetan – duten 7TB RAID array portuetan asko erabiltzen! Nahiz eta jakin nuen kanpoan nire Oso zaharrak 200GB disko gogorra eraman gora portuak horietako bat. Ohartarazi ere I hartzailearen disko horrek duen SMART jarraipen adierazitako ezinda zen. SATA portu eza konpontzeko aldi baterako bezala, Are nuen migratu zerbitzari horrek OS lau USB makilak multzo bat md batean RAID1. Crazy. Badakit. Ezin izan dut gehiegi abiadura pozik. Joan eta berri bat fidagarria eta disko gogor bat SATA hedapen txartel berarekin joatea erabaki nuen erosi.

Zerbitzari horrek lehen Arch partizio zen disko 7GB buruz erabiliz. Horren zati handi bat izan zen, aldatu fitxategia, Cacheko datu eta bestela Denetarik edo behar ez diren fitxategiak. Oro har, sistema eragilea tamaina benetako, barne /hasiera karpeta, bakarrik zen 2GB buruz. Hau galdetuko super-azkar sartu niri begiratu SSD gidatzeko, pentsatzen agian txikiago bat ez izatea, beraz, garestia. Konturatu nintzen merkeena ez SSD disko aurkitu nuen benetan duten kostua gehiago horiek nahiko txiki SSDs bat baino. Niretzat Yay. 🙂

Aukeratu? Woah?!

OS aukeratuz, Dagoeneko nuke erabaki ez litzateke Arch. Beste herri guztiak banaketen Out, Ubuntu gehien ezagutzen dut eta CentOS. Fedora izan ere, aukera bat – baina ez nuen oso serio hartu zuen oraindik zerbitzari bat. Ubuntu irabazi txandan.

Hurrengo erabakia egin behar izan nuen, ez zuen nirekin gertatzen arte Ubiquity (Ubuntu instalatzeko morroia) galdetu niretzat: Nola eratu da partizioak.

To SSDs erabiliz Linux berri izan dut – Eta ez dute erabiltzen bezala pitfalls jakitun naiz, batez ere, beren bizitza-luzeraren pobrea arriskua dela eta abusuzkoa bada.

Ez nuen nahi bat dedikatu swap partizio erabili. Asmoa dut zerbitzariaren plaka / CPU / memoria berritzea ez oso urrun etorkizunean. Oinarritutako on swap jarriko dut swap fitxategi batean erabaki nuen, lehendik dagoen RAID md. Swap ez da bereziki azkarra baina bere helburu bakarra izango dela arraroa kariaz izan direnean zerbait gaizki asi eta memoria ez dago eskuragarri.

Honek, ondoren, utzi emateko me erro bidea baten out 60GB osoa Intel 330 SSD. / Home banantzen jotzen dut, baina besterik ez zirudien apur bat pointless, nola txikia zen iraganean erabiltzen. Ezarri lehenbiziko dut partizio batera LVM – zerbait duela gutxi naute direnean jartzen ditut Linux kutxa bat egiten ari (benetan, Ez dago aitzakiarik LVM erabili behar da). Noiz lortu zati non fitxategi sistema konfiguratzeko nuke, Goitibeherako, bertan klik egin eta senari ext4 hautatu. Ondoren btrfs nabaritu dut zerrenda berean. Hang on!!

Baina zer?

Btrfs (“gurina-EFF-ESS”, “hobeto-EFF-ESS”, “bee-zuhaitz-EFF-ESS”, edo dena delakoa zeren gura zaren huraxe egunean) nahiko da fitxategi-sistema berria garatu ahal izateko, Linux ekartzea’ fitxategi sistemaren gaitasunak back pista fitxategi-sistema gaur egungo tech. Lehendik dagoen King-de-Hill, fitxategi-sistema, “ext” (izeneko ext4 uneko bertsioan) nahiko ona da – baina mugatua, zahar paradigma trabatuta (marka berri bat dela uste F22 Raptor vs. baten F4 Phantom balioki berritze bat saiakera-erdia jested batekin) eta zaila da gai oso luze lehiatuko Enterprise berriagoak diren, esate baterako, fitxategi-sistemak izan behar Oracle en ZFS. Btrfs oraindik bide luzea joan da, eta oraindik ere jotzen esperimentala (arabera ezaugarriek duten galdetu eta zer behar duzun). Askok uste izan egonkorra erabilera oinarrizko – baina inork ez da berme egiteko joan. Eta, jakina, denek babeskopiak egin eta probatzeko esaten!

Mooooooo

Ext eta btrfs arteko diferentzia nagusia da btrfs dela “Behi” edo “Idatzi kopia” fitxategi-sistema. Horrek esan nahi du, datu hori ez da inoiz benetan nahita fitxategi sistema barnekoak desegitea. Fitxategi batean aldaketa bat idazten bada, btrfs zure aldaketak idatziko du komunikabideen fisiko kokaleku berri bat eta barne-erakusleak eguneratu egingo da, kokaleku berri aipatzeko. Btrfs doa urrats bat gehiago horretan barne erakusleak horiek (metadatu gisa aipatzen) dira Era berean, Behi. Zaharragoa ext bertsioak izango litzateke, besterik gabe, gainidatzi datuak. Ext4 Journal bat erabiliko luke ustelkeria ez dela gertatzen ziurtatzeko AC plug yanked gehien inopportune une. Urrats antzeko emaitzak aldizkari datuak eguneratzeko eskatzen. SSD batekin, azpiko hardware antzeko prozesua behi funtzionatzen du axola zer fitxategi-sistema erabiltzen ari zaren. Hau da, SSD unitate ezin delako benetan gainidatzi datuak – datuak kopiatu behar dute (Zure aldaketak) kokaleku berrira, eta ondoren, bloke zaharrak ezabatzeko, oso-osorik. Arlo honetan optimizazioa bat da SSD bat agian ez ere ezabatuko zaharrak blokean, baizik eta, besterik gabe, ohar bat blokea ezabatu beranduago egin gauzak ez dira hain lanpetuta. Azken emaitza da SSD drive hori oso ondo egokitzen behi fitxategi-sistema batekin, eta ez egiteko, baita ez-behi fitxategi-sistemak dituzten.

Gai interesgarriak egin ahal izateko, Fitxategi-sistema behi erraz eskuz esku doa izeneko deduplication ezaugarri bat. Horrek aukera ematen die bi (edo gehiago) datu-bloke berdin-berdina gordetzen bakarra kopia bat erabiliz, aurrezteko espazioa. Behi With, deduplicated fitxategi bat aldatzen da, bada, bereizi twin ez du eraginik izango, aldatutako fitxategiaren datuak izan fisikoa bloke desberdin bat idatzi.

Aldi berean, behi egiten du snapshotting nahiko erraza ezartzeko. Argazki bat besterik ez da sistema berri snapshot Erregistro bolumena barruan datu guztiak eta metadatuak bikoizketa izateaz. Behi With, aldaketak egiten dira, argazkian datuak oso-osorik egonaldiak, argazkia egin zuen denbora bat eta fitxategi sistema egoera ikuspegi koherentea mantendu daiteke.

Lagun berri bat

Batez ere kontuan honekin, batez ere Ubuntu install-denbora aukera bat egin btrfs eskuragarri, Btrfs murgiltzea eta pixka bat arakatzeko ona izango litzateke hurrena I. 🙂

Taldea 2 laster …

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Thursday, January 01st, 2009 | Author:

Apparently, what operating system you use can say a lot about you. If you’re using some form of *nix, which distro you’re using can say a lot as well. Redundancy aside, I believe that a Linux distribution depends absolutely on its package management and distribution system.

I liked apt-get (1, 2) but there was some technical problem at some point and it caused me to use aptitude instead. Using aptitude is slightly easierit has more features automated into single, logical, commands where apt-get requires separate commands. Aptitude also has a curses-based GUI. If you’re not using the GUI then, other than brevity in terms of number of commands to learn, there is apparently no technical reason to prefer one over the other. Aptitude and apt-get serve K/X/Ubuntu eta Debian ondo. From this point, I use the names Kubuntu and Ubuntu in a loosely interchangeable fashion.

In my use of CentOS (based on Red Hat), I’ve found I like yum. It seems to work in much the same as aptitudeone command to rule them all. It has some rather annoying default behaviour I’m not going to get into here as its most likely because I’m just not used to it. At least from a technical perspective, it is very good. I believe that Fedora also makes use of yum though my experience with Fedora is very limited.

the theory

Fedora and Ubuntu are in a class of distributions that have a fairly rigorous release cycle. Ubuntu 8.10 (the version is named so for the year and month of its release) will not, except for major bugs and minor changes, have another major update until the next version, Jaunty Jackalope. Ubuntu users have the latest versions of most software on their desktops right now. In the months preceding the next release, however, they’re not going to be so lucky unless they like using “beta” releases. As I’m not very familiar with Fedora, I’m not going to bother going into its release cycle.

These 2 distributions are also within a class of distributions known asbinary” edo “binary-baseddistributions. This means that when you download an update, the files that are downloaded are precompiled and should run on anysupportedhardware. This isn’t specifically optimised for your desktop’s hardware, for example, your processor. Perhaps you have an AMD processor which has extra instruction support which Intel CPUs do not have. The reverse could also be true. For this reason, a binary-release distribution cannot optimise for one particular brand of hardware. Regardless of thisnon-optimisation”, it should run at a decent pace.

the practice!

Buruz 2 years ago I started using Kubuntu. After a few months of working with it, I started to learn more about its specifics. I’m not much of a fan of using GUI tools to update the system when, ultimately, its all happening on the command-line anyway. The GUI tools just hide the complexity I don’t mind seeing.

I ended up making a Bash script, update, which would run all the steps required to get aptitude to just go ahead and upgrade already, kthx?©, perhaps stopping along the way to back up my configuration, remount the NFS network share where we keep an on-site repository, back up the local cache of aptitude’s installed packages, do some folder-link shuffling to use a local copy if the network share couldn’t remount, sync between the local copy and the network share if the previous update had a network share issue, and update lists of packages in the repository. In general, it wouldn’t go ahead if there were any errors though, as you can tell, this script became a messy beast that went above and beyond the original requirements. It worked well for me.

Until the day came to update between Kubuntu 6.10 ra 7.04. I did this manually though, not with the script.

I ended up reinstalling from scratch as a result of the mess that ensued. At least, as a backup administrator should do well to demonstrate, it was easy to recover everything I really needed. 🙂

What else is out there?

Even before I had to reinstall Kubuntu, I was introduced to another distribution called Gentoo. There are 2 very distinct differences between Gentoo and Ubuntu’s update system. The first is that Gentoo is a source-based distribution. This means that when you update a package, the package manager downloads the source and compiles everything, hopefully optimising it for your system. This, I think, is very cool. The downside to this is that compiling everything takes a very long time.

Here are my (very unscientific) estimates for the length of time it takes to install a basic GUI OS to a desktop from installation media, excluding extraneous drivers (for example, the latest 3D graphics drivers):

OS: minmax (median)

Windows Vista: 15 – 30 (20) minutes

Ubuntu: 15 – 40 (20) minutes

Gentoo: 3 – 40 (6) hours

Gentoo also requires much tinkering with the config files in order to get things workingthis is another reason for the extremely long delay between inserting the CD and booting your awesome* new desktop. Popular applications have binary packages available for downloadthough this isn’t a default option.

They see me rollin

There is one more very important distinction Gentoo has from most other distributions. It is arolling-releasedistribution. This means that there isn’t any rigorous version orreleasethat the distribution adheres to. If you install Gentoo todayif you finish installing Gentoo today, you’re probably going to have the latest version of all the applications you installed. If some obscure application gets a major update tomorrow, within a few days, if you update your system, you’re going to have that latest version on your desktop.

The difference between this rolling release and theotherdistributions is rather staggering. Adibidez: If KDE 4.2 were to be released tomorrow, you’d probably have to wait less than 2 weeks for it to be available on Gentoo. Ubuntu users might have to wait till 9.04 – that’s a 4-month wait.

Something more suitable?

Personally, I’m not willing to put in the 40 hours of effort to get my system working the way I want it to. My colleague had to reinstall recently for some obscure reason and it turns out he wasn’t willing to put in the 6 hours (he’s more experienced with Gentoo) of effort to get his system back to how it was running either. Instead, Arch Linux caught his eye. Arch Linux is a rolling-release (like Gentoo), binary-based (like Ubuntu) distribution. Its packages (ondo, the vast majority of them) don’t need much tinkering with their config files to get things working nicely either. Its the best of both worlds!

You still need to know what you’re doing* but if you’ve come to this juncture, it shouldn’t be such a giant leap of faith. Arch Linux’s package manager, called pacman, has built-in dependency and conflict handling. I use another package manager, yaourt (French for yoghurt), which has very quickly become popular with Arch users. Yaourt enhances the functionality of pacman by allowing you to download and install applications directly from the AUR, edo Arch User Repository. This repository contains scripts that allow you to automatically download and install many applications that would otherwise be completely unsupported by Arch’s own core developers. It downloads and compiles the package into a chroot’d environment. It then packages the chroot’d environment into a pacman-compatible package tarball and uses pacman to deploy it into your system.

Halaber, the AUR supports a voting system whereby popular packages get placed into the more official [community] repository. Yaourt also supports an automated voting mechanism whereby, after installing a package via AUR, it asks if you want to vote for its inclusion in [community].

I estimate that the time taken for my Arch installation was about 90 minutes. I don’t recommend Archlinux for newbies though I do recommend it for any Linux user who’s gotten bored with other distrosand wants to get into the nitty gritty without having to install Linux From Scratch. Arch Linux has been getting pretty popular these days. Its currently at number 14 on Distrowatch.

* IF you know what you’re doing. AND YOU BETTER BLOODY KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DOING!
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