Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Part 1 – Gabatarwa – Da kafa Simple queues (Wannan post)
  • Part 2 – Dogara Gano zirga-zirga – Da kafa Mangle Dokokin (Ba da da ewa zuwa TM)
  • Part 3 – Manyan al'amurra da kuma Iyaka – Da kafa jerin gwano Bishiyoyi (Ba da da ewa zuwa TM)
  • Part 4 – Monitoring Usage – Alamar rashin queues – Limiting Abusive Devices (Ba da da ewa zuwa TM)
  • Part 5 – ??? Riba ???

Gabatarwa

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Yawanci babu wanda ya san dalilin da ya sa, wanda, ko abin da ake haddasa matsalar – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Wani lokacin shi ne ISP – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “sites / gabatarwa” cewa amfani QoS ka gudanar da yanar-gizo connectivity. Daya ne wurin aiki, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – yawanci kamar wani gida dangane amma a madadin, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-mutum (da kuma girma) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS da

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, kamar DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Untangle, da sauransu. Mafi yawa daga cikin wadannan yawanci na bukatar cewa kana da kayayyakin uwar garken kwance game da ko mai jituwa hardware hanya tsakanin hanyoyin sadarwa. Mikrotik sayar RouterBoards da cewa suna da RouterOS builtin – kuma sun gwada da m.

My kwarewa da magudanar ne da farko da Cisco da kuma MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Rarraba ta NetEnforcer / NetXplorer tsarin da MikroTik. Mafi mashahuri MikroTik na'urorin a kwarewa (wanin su sadaukar dogon zangon mara waya na'urorin) sun kasance su rb750 (new version mai suna “hEX“) da kuma rb950-bisa allon. Bã su da sauran jama'a available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Na kula don bayyana MikroTik ta na'urorin kamar yadda “90% da fasali a 10% kudin”. Kamar yadda wannan mai shiryarwa ne da nufin farko a SME / Home amfani, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, lura da cewa MikroTik magudanar yi ba typically include DSL modems, Kamar haka ku data kasance m ne yawanci har yanzu zama dole. Ka lura kuma cewa wannan ba a tutorial a kafa wani MikroTik na'urar daga karce. Akwai yalwa da Yanã shiryar da samuwa online ga cewa tuni.

Ka'idar cikin yi – farko da matakai

Don kafa QoS daidai, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Overall dangane gudun
  • Da yawa masu amfani / na'urorin za a ta yin amfani da connection
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

A cimma sama a misalai, Zan zaton da wadannan:

  • A MikroTik aka kafa tare da tsoho cibiyar sadarwa sanyi inda gida na cibiyar sadarwa ne 192.168.88.0/24 da yanar-gizo dangane an bada via PPPoE.
  • A dangane gudun ne 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps download gudun; 2 Mbps upload gudun)
  • Za a yi 5 masu amfani da matsayin masu yawa kamar yadda 15 na'urorin (mahara kwakwalwa / Allunan / wayoyin hannu / WiFi da dai sauransu)
  • Hankula downloads na bukatar babban fifiko da kayan da aka samar amma low-fifiko da rashin laka
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • Babu masu amfani ne da za a prioritized kan sãshe

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Simple jerin gwano.

Na sanya wani ɗan gajeren rubutun da na ajiye a kan MikroTik na'urorin kafa da sauki queues. Shi ne kamar haka:

:don x daga 1 to 254 do ={
 /jerin gwano sauki add sunan ="internet-usage- $ x" dst ="pppoe" max-iyaka = 1900k / 9500k manufa ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Abin da na sama ya aikata ne iyaka matsakaicin gudun kowane mutum na'urar iya amfani da su domin “1900k” (1.9Mb) upload da “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Bayanan kula:

  • Dalilin da ya sa max iyaka ne a 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Misali, tare da 100 masu amfani a kan wani 20Mb sabis na iya sa wannan iyaka zuwa 15Mb ko ma a matsayin kadan a matsayin 1MB. Wannan shi ne gaba ɗaya dogara da yadda “m” da masu amfani ne da, kamar yadda ka gane inda kuma yadda abuse auku, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Da kari “internet-mai cutarwa” da sunan siga za a iya musamman. Yawanci na sa wadannan domin ya koma zuwa gabatarwa sunan. Misali, with premises named “alpha” da kuma “beta”, Zan yawanci sa “internet-alpha” da kuma “internet-beta”. Wannan taimaka tare da instinctively bambance tsakanin shafukan.
  • A dst siga na da “pppoe” a misali. Wannan ya kamata a sauya da sunan dubawa that provides the Internet connection.

Tabbatar da ka siffanta da rubutun ya zama ya dace to your sanyi. Ajiye rubutun ga MikroTik da gudanar da shi – ko manna shi kai tsaye a cikin MikroTik ta m zartar da shi.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle dokoki. Wadannan dokoki bauta gane / rarraba cibiyar sadarwa zirga-zirga domin ya yi finer-grained QoS yiwu.

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