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Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Part 1 – Gabatarwa – Da kafa Simple queues (Wannan post)
  • Part 2 – Dogara Gano zirga-zirga – Da kafa Mangle Dokokin (Ba da da ewa zuwa TM)
  • Part 3 – Manyan al'amurra da kuma Iyaka – Da kafa jerin gwano Bishiyoyi (Ba da da ewa zuwa TM)
  • Part 4 – Monitoring Usage – Alamar rashin queues – Limiting Abusive Devices (Ba da da ewa zuwa TM)
  • Part 5 – ??? Riba ???

Gabatarwa

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Yawanci babu wanda ya san dalilin da ya sa, wanda, ko abin da ake haddasa matsalar – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Wani lokacin shi ne ISP – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “sites / gabatarwa” cewa amfani QoS ka gudanar da yanar-gizo connectivity. Daya ne wurin aiki, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – yawanci kamar wani gida dangane amma a madadin, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-mutum (da kuma girma) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS da

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, kamar DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Untangle, da sauransu. Mafi yawa daga cikin wadannan yawanci na bukatar cewa kana da kayayyakin uwar garken kwance game da ko mai jituwa hardware hanya tsakanin hanyoyin sadarwa. Mikrotik sayar RouterBoards da cewa suna da RouterOS builtin – kuma sun gwada da m.

My kwarewa da magudanar ne da farko da Cisco da kuma MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Rarraba ta NetEnforcer / NetXplorer tsarin da MikroTik. Mafi mashahuri MikroTik na'urorin a kwarewa (wanin su sadaukar dogon zangon mara waya na'urorin) sun kasance su rb750 (new version mai suna “hEX“) da kuma rb950-bisa allon. Bã su da sauran jama'a available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Na kula don bayyana MikroTik ta na'urorin kamar yadda “90% da fasali a 10% kudin”. Kamar yadda wannan mai shiryarwa ne da nufin farko a SME / Home amfani, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, lura da cewa MikroTik magudanar yi ba typically include DSL modems, Kamar haka ku data kasance m ne yawanci har yanzu zama dole. Ka lura kuma cewa wannan ba a tutorial a kafa wani MikroTik na'urar daga karce. Akwai yalwa da Yanã shiryar da samuwa online ga cewa tuni.

Ka'idar cikin yi – farko da matakai

Don kafa QoS daidai, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Overall dangane gudun
  • Da yawa masu amfani / na'urorin za a ta yin amfani da connection
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

A cimma sama a misalai, Zan zaton da wadannan:

  • A MikroTik aka kafa tare da tsoho cibiyar sadarwa sanyi inda gida na cibiyar sadarwa ne 192.168.88.0/24 da yanar-gizo dangane an bada via PPPoE.
  • A dangane gudun ne 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps download gudun; 2 Mbps upload gudun)
  • Za a yi 5 masu amfani da matsayin masu yawa kamar yadda 15 na'urorin (mahara kwakwalwa / Allunan / wayoyin hannu / WiFi da dai sauransu)
  • Hankula downloads na bukatar babban fifiko da kayan da aka samar amma low-fifiko da rashin laka
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • Babu masu amfani ne da za a prioritized kan sãshe

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Simple jerin gwano.

Na sanya wani ɗan gajeren rubutun da na ajiye a kan MikroTik na'urorin kafa da sauki queues. Shi ne kamar haka:

:don x daga 1 to 254 do ={
 /jerin gwano sauki add sunan ="internet-usage- $ x" dst ="pppoe" max-iyaka = 1900k / 9500k manufa ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Abin da na sama ya aikata ne iyaka matsakaicin gudun kowane mutum na'urar iya amfani da su domin “1900k” (1.9Mb) upload da “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Bayanan kula:

  • Dalilin da ya sa max iyaka ne a 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Misali, tare da 100 masu amfani a kan wani 20Mb sabis na iya sa wannan iyaka zuwa 15Mb ko ma a matsayin kadan a matsayin 1MB. Wannan shi ne gaba ɗaya dogara da yadda “m” da masu amfani ne da, kamar yadda ka gane inda kuma yadda abuse auku, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Da kari “internet-mai cutarwa” da sunan siga za a iya musamman. Yawanci na sa wadannan domin ya koma zuwa gabatarwa sunan. Misali, with premises named “alpha” da kuma “beta”, Zan yawanci sa “internet-alpha” da kuma “internet-beta”. Wannan taimaka tare da instinctively bambance tsakanin shafukan.
  • A dst siga na da “pppoe” a misali. Wannan ya kamata a sauya da sunan dubawa that provides the Internet connection.

Tabbatar da ka siffanta da rubutun ya zama ya dace to your sanyi. Ajiye rubutun ga MikroTik da gudanar da shi – ko manna shi kai tsaye a cikin MikroTik ta m zartar da shi.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle dokoki. Wadannan dokoki bauta gane / rarraba cibiyar sadarwa zirga-zirga domin ya yi finer-grained QoS yiwu.

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Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:

Tsare Sirri, Time, Kudi

Ba na son zare kudi umarni. Ban taba son wannan ra'ayin cewa wani mahaluži iya, a nufin, kai kusan duk wani adadin kudi ta (da … abin da ke samuwa). A abokin aiki nuna batun tare da MTN da an kauce masa ya I an ta amfani da zare kudi domin. Wata kila da “saukaka” factor ba da irin wannan mummunan abu.

Na yi tsammani da penultimate tambaya a nan shi ne shin ko ba ka so saukaka kuma zai iya amince da cibiyoyin (a wannan yanayin da ka kudi) – ko kuma idan ba za ka iya amince da su kuma su ne shirye ya forgo cewa saukaka. A na harka, ko da yake har yanzu ina tambayar saukaka, Na koyi da wuya hanyar da MTN cewa ninki biyu na iya zama m zuwa da ka alaka duniya rage zuwa “m tsibirin” status. Kusan kowa da kowa a yau ke tare da saukaka factor.

Saukaka

A wannan bangaren, yanzu lokaci mai tsawo da suka wuce, I had a dispute with Planet Fitness inda saukaka wani mai kaifi biyu takobi. Na ruwaito su kasuwanci yi wa Mai amfani da gunaguni Hukumar (tun sake shirya yadda Mai amfani da Hukumar kasa) and never got feedback from them. The gist of the issue is that Planet Fitness’s sales agent lied to me and a friend in order to get more commission/money out of my pocket.

Ba ni da wani Samu vitality m wanda ya ba mutane da yawa amfanin, ciki har da rage kudaden a kan Premium brands – mafi yawa kiwon lafiya da alaka ba shakka, as Discovery is a Medical Aid/Health Insurance provider. A saka shi kawai, Samu ne madalla. Vitality ta amfanin rufe dakin motsa jiki mambobin da abin da kara hada da Planet Fitness. You still have to pay something, karamin alama dadin jikina, to Gano, ga dakin motsa jiki membobinsu. Amma, bayan duk, sun so ni in zama lafiya, so they don’t mind footing the bulk of the bill. Amma, a fili, wannan yana nufin Planet Fitness’ tallace-tallace jamiái ba su samu da hukumar!

To, abin da ya aikata wannan sakamakon a? A sakamakon haka ne cewa PF ta tallace-tallace wakili ya ba ni wani inflated adadi na “Vitality na tushen” membobinsu. Ya yi ƙarya. Sai ya yi mini hannu a kan cike da gidajen gona line ga wani inflated farashin mai “na yau da kullum” membobinsu (a, shi ne a zahiri fiye da ko da wani na yau da kullum membobinsu zai kudin), ending up about 4 da kuma 5 sau da yawa a matsayin vitality na tushen membobinsu.

Epiphanies

Some time in 2011 Na karshe wisened har zuwa cikin halin kaka da nake kamata da za a biya. Samu Na tabbata ba zai zama ma farin ciki game da wannan fiasco. Na yi magana da Manager a dakin motsa jiki, kuma ina da tabbacin cewa dukan kwangila za a tarwatsa. Ba na daya domin tashin hankali … sai dai idan ta ga wasanni … a cikin wani Octagon … amma bayan ta 5th ziyara a Manager su tambaye dalilin da ya sa Zare kudi oda aka har yanzu faruwa, ya ce da ni ya yi mamakin ban zo da makamai tare da ni ga ziyarar. Bayan 'yan mafi ziyara, da Manager ya zahiri bar Planet Fitness da bayyana mini cewa, “kwangila” was between myself and Head Office and that the local gym, a fili a ikon amfani da sunan kamfani-style aiki, ya little to ba ka ce game da ko ko ba haka ba za a iya soke. Idan Head Office ce ba, m arziki.

By this point I’d lost it. I had my bank put a daina da zare kudi umarni. It was a huge schlep: I had to contact the bank every month because the debit order descriptions would change ever so slightly. It also cost me a little every couple of months to “reinstate” the blocking sabis. Ba zan iya taimakawa, amma tunanin da banki tsarin na goyon bayan na yau da kullum maganganu amma ma'aikatan Ba ​​dole ba san yadda za su yi amfani da shi.

Technically I’m still waiting on the CCC to get back to me (ba ya faru – kuma ba shakka da suka kasance sunã sake shirya yadda aka ambata a sama don haka al'amarin yiwuwa fadi ta hanyar fasa). I mana, da cewa batu PF ma so ya blacklist ni ga ba biyan!

Da ba tsammani Hero

A taragutsan ambaci batun to Gano (Ina ganin na yi kira gare su game da wani likitan hakora ziyarar) sa a cikin wani callback da daya daga Gano ta jamiái. Fa, sun tambaye ni don bayyana matsalar, daki-daki da kuma a rubuce, to mafi alhẽri bayyana daga hangen zaman gaba abin da ya faru da gaske. Na zamar masa dole. Sai dai itace da na ke daidai game da su ba da “kuma farin ciki” game da shi. A gaskiya sun gaske ba su son shi. About three weeks later, Planet Fitness refunded ni a FULL ga dukan kudade da suka kasance Mai an biya musu.

Samu ne Awesome. 🙂

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Monday, October 29th, 2012 | Author:

It appears that, in infinite wisdom, Google have a security feature that can block an application from accessing or using your google account. I can see how this might be a problem for Google’s users, in particular their GTalk da kuma Gmail users. In my case it was Pidgin having an issue with the Jabber sabis (which is technically part of GTalk). I found the solution after a little digging. I was surprised at how old the issue was and how long this feature has existed!

To unlock the account and get your application online, use Google’s Captcha page here.

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Wednesday, June 08th, 2011 | Author:

I did a full update on my personal server at home as one is bound to do, often, tare da Arch. It’s a headless server so there’s always that slight anxiety concerning whether or not I have to connect a keyboard/monitor when things don’t just work. The wish was not granted today:

Arch Linux started booting up normally and init starts runlevel 3, the where it stats loading daemons:

:: Adjusting Hardware Clock [Busy]

And that’s where it just hangs. No further. Ctrl+Alt+Del works, single user mode works, but standard runlevel 3 will not. It turns out that the cause is a bug between hwclock and the server’s hardware clock. The backup battery on the motherboard, powering the CMOS memory and, subsequently, the hardware clock, is dead. While the system is powered up the battery isn’t neededhowever since the hardware clock knows it has reset, it won’t tick until we tell it what the time is. Counter to this is that when hwclock starts, it’s waiting for a clock tick in order for it to know if the hardware clock’s rate of progress is good. Catch 22.

The solution in my case was to go into single user mode where I could disable hwclock in /etc/rc.conf. I’ve been using ntpd to keep the system time in sync which works just fine. I’m not too bothered with whether or not the hardware clock is rightI just want the live system’s clock to be right. It will still be a good idea to get a replacement battery since, until that’s done, every time the server boots it will think its back in 1997.

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Category: random  | One Comment
Friday, September 24th, 2010 | Author:

The upgrade to WordPress 3 was long overdue (as are many draft articles). Surprisingly, nothing looks different since the upgrade has been completed, though I also would not be surprised if I’ve missed an important plugin breakage.

I’ll be spending a day this weekend solely on polishing the site and finishing up some articles. You have something to look forward to. 🙂

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