Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Part 1 – Introduction – Qhov chaw mus Tej yam yooj yim Queues (Cov ncej no)
  • Part 2 – Nti Nrhiav tsheb – Qhov chaw mus mangle kev cai (Tab tom yuav tuaj TM)
  • Part 3 – Tseem ceeb thiab Txwv – Qhov chaw mus Queue Tsob ntoo (Tab tom yuav tuaj TM)
  • Part 4 – Monitoring Usage – Redefining Queues – Limiting Abusive Devices (Tab tom yuav tuaj TM)
  • Part 5 – ??? Nyiaj ???

Introduction

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Feem ntau tsis muaj leej twg paub vim li cas, uas, los yog dab tsi yog ua tau rau cov teeb meem – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Tej zaum nws yog ib lub ISP – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “qhov chaw / thaj chaw” uas siv QoS los mus tswj lawv Internet connectivity. Ib tug yog kuv chaw ua hauj lwm, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – feem ntau yog ib lub tsev kev twb kev txuas tab sis xwb, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-txiv neej (thiab loj hlob) LAN. Kev lom zem. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS thiab

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, xws li DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Untangle, thiab thiaj li tawm. Feem ntau ntawm cov feem ntau yuav tsum tau hais tias koj muaj ib tug spare neeg rau zaub mov dag txog los yog ib tug tau tshaj kho vajtse router. Mikrotik muag RouterBoards uas muaj RouterOS builtin – thiab lawv no kuj pheej yig.

Kuv kev nrog routers yog feem nrog Cisco thiab MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Faib lub NetEnforcer / NetXplorer tshuab thiab MikroTik. Cov feem nrov MikroTik pab kiag li lawm nyob rau hauv kuv kev (lwm yam tshaj li lawv muaj nplooj siab ntev-ntau wireless pab kiag li lawm) tau lawv rb750 (tshiab version npe “Hex“) thiab rb950-raws li laug cam. Lawv muaj ntau lwm tus neeg available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Kuv twb tended piav MikroTik tus pab kiag li lawm raws li “90% cov yam ntxwv ntawm 10% tus nqi”. Raws li phau ntawv no yog tswj feem ntau ntawm SME / Tsev siv, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, nco ntsoov tias MikroTik routers ua tsis typically include DSL modems, yog li koj uas twb muaj lawm cov khoom yog feem ntau tseem tsim nyog. Nco ntsoov kuj hais tias qhov no yog tsis ib tug nyeem teem tau ib MikroTik ntaus ntawv los ntawm kos. Muaj ntau ntau cov ntawm cov muaj nyob hauv internet rau cov uas twb.

Ziag rau hauv kev xyaum – thawj kauj ruam

Teem caij mus QoS kom, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Lub zuag qhia tag nrho kev twb kev txuas ceev
  • Yuav ua li cas ntau cov neeg siv / pab kiag li lawm yuav tau siv cov kev twb kev txuas
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Mus cuag cov saum toj no nyob rau hauv kuv piv txwv, Kuv yuav xav li nram qab no:

  • Lub MikroTik yog teem nrog lub neej ntawd network configuration qhov twg lub zos network yog 192.168.88.0/24 thiab hauv Internet kev twb kev txuas yog muab ntawm PPPoE.
  • Cov kev twb kev txuas ceev yog 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps download ceev; 2 Mbps upload ceev)
  • Yuav muaj 5 cov neeg siv uas raws li muaj ntau yam raws li 15 pab kiag li lawm (ntau yam computers / ntsiav tshuaj / txawb tes / WiFi thiab lwm yam)
  • Raug downloads yuav tsum tau plaws nrog ntxiv rau tab sis tsis muaj-qhov tseem ceeb nrog latency
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • Tsis neeg siv yog cov yuav tsum tau prioritized tshaj lwm leej lwm tus

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Tej yam yooj yim Queue.

Kuv twb ua tau ib tug luv luv tsab ntawv uas kuv tau txais kev cawmdim rau kuv MikroTik pab kiag li lawm thiaj teeb tau lub yooj yim queues. Nws yog raws li nram no:

:rau x los ntawm 1 rau 254 ua ={
 /queue yooj yim ntxiv lub npe ="hauv internet-usage- $ x" dst ="pppoe" max-txwv = 1900k / 9500k phiaj ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Yuav ua li cas saum toj no tsis yog txwv lub siab tshaj plaws ceev tej neeg ntaus ntawv yuav siv rau “1900k” (1.9Mb) upload thiab “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Sau ntawv:

  • Yog vim li cas vim li cas lub max txwv yog cov nyob 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Piv txwv li, nrog 100 cov neeg siv rau ib tug 20MB kev pab kuv yuav muab qhov no txwv rau 15Mb los yog txawm raws li me ntsis li 1Mb. Qhov no yog nkaus nyob rau yuav ua li cas “tsim” lub cov neeg siv yog thiab, raws li koj xam tawm nyob qhov twg thiab yuav ua li cas npaum li cas tsim txom tshwm sim, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Lub prefix “hauv internet-pab” nyob rau hauv lub npe parameter yuav yog Mekas. Feem ntau kuv cia li muab cov mus rau xa mus rau lub chaw zov lub npe. Piv txwv li, with premises named “alpha” thiab “beta”, Kuv yuav feem ntau muab tso rau “hauv internet-alpha” thiab “hauv internet-beta”. Qhov no yuav pab nrog instinctively differentiating ntawm qhov chaw.
  • Lub dst parameter muaj “pppoe” nyob rau hauv qhov piv txwv hauv. Qhov no yuav tsum tau pawg nrog lub npe ntawm tus interface that provides the Internet connection.

Xyuas kom koj customize rau hauv tsab ntawv yuav tsum tau tsim nyog rau koj configuration. Txuag lub tsab ntawv mus rau lub MikroTik thiab khiav nws – los yog muab tshuaj txhuam nws ncaj qha mus rau hauv lub MikroTik lub davhlau ya nyob twg rau txim tuag nws.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle kev cai. Cov kev cai pab kom paub tias / faib cov network tsheb nyob rau hauv thiaj li yuav ua finer-grained QoS tau.

Qhia
Category: random
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