Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Pati 1 – Entwodiksyon – Mete kanpe Ke moun kap kriye Senp (Pòs sa a)
  • Pati 2 – Fiable Idantifye trafik – Mete kanpe Mangle Règ (Vini byento TM)
  • Pati 3 – Priyorite ak Limit – Mete kanpe Pyebwa keu (Vini byento TM)
  • Pati 4 – Monitoring Usage – Rdefini Ke moun kap kriye – Limiting Abusive Devices (Vini byento TM)
  • Pati 5 – ??? Pwofi ???

Entwodiksyon

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Tipikman pèsonn pa konnen poukisa, ki, oswa sa ki se sa ki lakòz pwoblèm nan – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Pafwa li se ISP a – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “sit / lokal” ke itilize QoS nan jere koneksyon Entènèt yo. Youn nan se espas travay mwen an, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – anjeneral jis yon koneksyon kay, men altènativman, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-nonm (ak ap grandi) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS ak

MikroTikNan RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, tankou DD-wr, Smoothwall, Débouyé, ak pou fè. Pifò nan sa yo tipikman mande pou ke ou gen yon sèvè rezèv kouche sou oswa yon routeur pyès ki nan konpitè konpatib. Mikrotik vann RouterBoards sa yo ki te RouterOS builtin – epi yo ap relativman chè.

Eksperyans mwen ak routeurs se sitou ak Cisco ak MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Lote nan NetEnforcer / NetXplorer sistèm ak MikroTik. Ki pi popilè aparèy yo MikroTik nan eksperyans mwen (lòt pase alontèm aparèy san fil dedye yo) yo te yo rb750 (nouvo vèsyon yo te rele “Egzagòn“) ak rb950-ankadreman ki baze. Yo gen anpil lòt moun available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Mwen te te gen tandans yo dekri aparèy MikroTik a kòm “90% karakteristik yo ki nan 10% pri a”. Kòm se gid sa a ki vize prensipalman nan SME / itilizasyon nan kay, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, sonje ke MikroTik routeurs fè pa typically include DSL modems, konsa ekipman ki egziste deja ou se tipikman toujou nesesè. Remak tou ke sa a se pa yon leson patikilye sou mete kanpe yon aparèy MikroTik nan grate. Gen anpil gid disponib sou entènèt pou ki deja.

Teyori an pratik – premye etap

Yo mete kanpe kòrèkteman QoS, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Vitès la koneksyon an jeneral
  • Ki jan anpil divinò / aparèy pral sèvi ak koneksyon an
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Pou yo rive nan pi wo a la nan egzanp mwen, Mwen pral asime sa ki annapre yo:

  • MikroTik a ap mete kanpe ak configuration la, te rezo default kote rezo a lokal se 192.168.88.0/24 epi li se koneksyon sou entènèt la bay atravè Ppeu.
  • Vitès la koneksyon se 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps vitès download; 2 Mbps vitès téléchargement)
  • Li pral fè 5 itilizatè yo ak anpil jan 15 aparèy (miltip òdinatè / tablèt / telefòn mobil / WiFi elatriye)
  • Downloads tipik mande pou gwo priyorite ak debi men ki ba-priyorite ak latansi
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • Pa gen itilizatè yo dwe priyorite sou lòt moun

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Senp keu.

Mwen te fè yon script kout ke mwen te sove sou aparèy MikroTik mwen yo mete kanpe ke moun kap kriye yo ki senp. Li se jan sa a:

:pou x soti nan 1 to 254 fè ={
 /nat Non ajoute senp ="entènèt-usage- $ x" DST ="ppeu" max-limit = 1900k / 9500k sib ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Ki sa ki pi wo a la fè se limit vitès maksimòm nan nenpòt aparèy endividyèl ka itilize yo “1900k” (1.9Mb) Upload ak “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Nòt:

  • Rezon an pou kisa limit ki max se nan 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Pou egzanp, ak 100 itilizatè sou yon sèvis 20MB mwen ta ka mete limit sa a 15Mb oswa menm tankou ti kòm 1Mb. Sa a se antyèman depann sou ki jan “abizif” itilizatè yo ye epi, jan ou konnen ki kote ak ki jan abi anpil fèt, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Prefiks la “entènèt-l '” nan paramèt nan non ka Customized. Tipikman mwen mete sa yo, al gade nan non an lokal. Pou egzanp, with premises named “alfa” ak “beta”, Mwen pral tipikman mete “entènèt-alfa” ak “entènèt-beta”. Sa a ki ede avèk enstenktiv différencier ant sit.
  • Paramèt nan DST gen “ppeu” nan egzanp lan. Sa a ta dwe ranplase ak non an nan la koòdone that provides the Internet connection.

Asire ou Customize script la yo dwe apwopriye a konfigirasyon ou. Save script la MikroTik a ak kouri li – oswa kole li dirèkteman nan tèminal MikroTik nan al touye li.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle règ. Règ sa yo sèvi yo idantifye / klasifye trafik la rezo nan lòd fè QoS sibtilite-grenn fen posib.

pataje
Category: random
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