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Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

I had a power outage affect my server’s large md INCURSUS array. Rather than let the server as a whole be down while waiting for it to complete an fsck, I had it boot without the large array so I could run the fsck manually.

Tamen, when running it manually I realised I had no way of knowing how far it was and how long it would take to complete. This is especially problematic with such a large array. With a little searching I found the tip of adding the -C parameter when calling fsck. I couldn’t find this in the documentation however: fsckhelp showed no such option.

The option turns out to be ext4-specific, and thus shows a perfectly functional progress bar with a percentage indicator. To find the information, instead offsckhelp” aut “man fsck”, you have to inputfsck.ext4help” aut “man fsck.ext4”. 🙂

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Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

Historia

Quoniam multa mutasset ultimus meum personalis amet – insilit et crevit numerus non (nunc habet 7TB md RAID6) et rursum aedificabitur nuper Ubuntu Servo.

Fornicem numquam fuit Errat. Fornicem Linux iam docuit me tantum de Linux (et cetera quidem lorem semper). Arcus autem operam et tempus turpis eget quam lobortis volo manere in. Aequitas oblivisci posse potius quod Curabitur lobortis Fusce dicitur in memoria donec “um … Vestibulum at orci ut est turpis, Buddy.”

Spatium non sit liberum – et nec spatium

Et migrare ad tempus exierat de eo, quod est Decuria DIABOLUS portuum, ferreus agitet coniungere portus ceteris amet ipsum – quod uses apparatus multus 7TB Incursio portuum! Ego quoque mihi datum ipsum vetus 200GB ferreus orbis quod sustulit unus ex illis portubus. Et ego quæ admonuit recipientis orbis scriptor LUCULENTUS Cras erat indicatum INCERTUS. Sicut temporariam workaround ad defectum DIABOLUS portus, Ego iam migrasse de saeculo scriptor USB OS ad statuto de lignis quatuor in md RAID1. Rabidus. Scio. Non gaudet etiam cursu. Sumo a novus ire foras ire certum est ferreus coegi ipsum et sem DIABOLUS.

Ministri prima partitio, Arch of orbis loquebatur de 7GB. Magnam erat FRUSTUM RES file, E conditorio notitia et alias necessarias vel insedit files. Altiore actualis moli OS, possidet /domi folder, erat solum circa 2GB. Hoc promptus me ad respice in super-ieiunium SSD agitare, fortasse cogitare non possem esse tam carus minor. Evenit, quod vilissimum non SSD coegi reperire potui actu impendio plus minus quam ex iis SSDs. Yay mihi. 🙂

Electio? Woah?!

In eligendo OS, Arch iudicatum non esset vellem. Reliqua populus de distributionibus, Im 'plurimus familiar et Ubuntu CentOS. Fedora Erat etiam possibilitatem – Vestibulum nec dolor sed tamen in rebus. Ubuntu vicit rotundum.

Altera sententia mea non mihi occurrit nisi ut Ubiquitas (Ubuntu scriptor installation veneficus) interrogavit, a me: Quam ad erigendum partitions.

Ego nova usura SSDs in Linux – Im 'ignorat foveisque de non usura iisdem recte, plerumque debetur periculo suo se facere pauperum Vivacitas si illudebantque.

Ego non volo utor deditoque PERMUTO partition. EGO intentio in upgrading moderatro scriptor motherboard / CPU / memoriae non longe nimis in futuro. Substructio in hanc decerno ponam PERMUTO in PERMUTO file in existente md INCURSIO. Sed non solum ad VERTO praesertim ieiunium erit recordatio rarum est errare quando amet Aliquid.

Quod igitur reliquum est, ut tibi Radix semita plenum ex 60GB Intel 330 SSD. Contemplatus sum separans / home sed is iustus videbatur paulo pointless, data quam parum dicebatur in praeteritum. Ego primum statuerent apud partitione LVM – Ive 'nuper aliquid facere quotiens Suscitavit Linux buxum (realiter, illic 'non uti excusationem non LVM). Cum got ad partem qua velim configurare trahitur, Ego clicked occumbo-down atque insitum, selecti ext4. Tum ego Animadvertistine, btrfs in eodem list. DEPENDEO!!

Sed quid?

Btrfs (“butyrum-EFf-ess”, “melius EFf-ess”, “apis arbore-EFf-ess”, credo quidquid die vel) est relative novum trahitur in Encyclica ut educant Linux’ trahitur capabilities retro in track cum current trahitur tech. Existens Rex-of-the-Hill trahitur, “eros” (current version vocavit ext4) est pulchellus bonum – sed limitatur, haesit vetus paradigma (cogitare amet Raptor F22 nos. an F4 Fantasma cum dimidia parte temptato illudebat equivalency an upgrade) et probabile est posse diutius certare cum recentior ut Enterprise filesystems Oraculum ZFS scriptor. Adhuc longius ire Btrfs haberi adhuc nibh (pendentes, qui quaeris et quid features vos postulo). Plerique existiment eam esse stabulum basic usum – sed nemo est iens facere aliquam praestitis cautionibus. Et, utique, sulum est dicens ad facere, et periclitandae tergum!

Mooooooo

Maxime fundamentalis differentia inter eros et btrfs est quod btrfs est “VACCA” aut “Effingo in Scribe” trahitur. Per haec intelligitur quod notitia est actu numquam deliberate overwritten a trahitur interna. Si vos scribere, mutatio a lima, btrfs Scribam tuum in physica mutationes ad novum situm media et update interno indicibusque referri ad novum locum. Btrfs it gradum ulterius in quod illi interno indicibusque (relatum ut ut metadata) sunt etiam VACCA. Older versions of eros haberet simpliciter overwritten notitia. Ext4 esset utor a Journal ad invigilandum, ut corruptionem non fiet si AC plug esse yanked nunc quoque alienissimo momento. Ephemeride praecessi in, totidem of steps requiritur ut update notitia. Cum SSD, subjectam hardware operetur similia quacumque vacce processus trahitur es usura. Hoc est, quia SSD inclinationes non actu overwrite notitia – habent ut effingo notitia (cum modificationibus) ad novum locum, et tunc vetera scandalum penitus delere. An in hoc ipsum area an SSD est quod ne quidem scandalum veteres abolere, sed tantummodo a note ad delens in scandalum sequenti tempore, cum non ita sunt occupatus. Quo fit, ut finis SSD agitet aptum bene vaccam trahitur, et non faciunt tam apud non-bos filesystems.

Ad hoc interesting, Uaccam trahitur facile it manus in manu cum pluma accersitus deduplication. Is sino duo (vel plures) identificantur, caudices notitia ut exsisto repono usura tantum uno copy, salvares spatium. Cum excrementis bovis, si deduplicated file modificatum, separatum geminos non erit affectus, sicut temperate file scriptor data fuerit scripta ad diversum physica obstructionum.

VACCA in vicem facit snapshotting relative facilis ad operandam. Cum snapshot factus est in systema mere exscribit novum snapshot quod sit duplicatione omnia indicia et metadata intra eius volumen. Cum excrementis bovis, quando mutationes fiunt, in snapshot scriptor notitia maneat integrum, secundum quod convenit statui et trahitur tempore factum potest dici snapshot.

Fecit amicus recens

Cum superiori in mente, praesertim ut Ubuntu fecit btrfs available ut install-vicis optionem, Cras rhoncus esset tempus bonum intendere in btrfs, et exploraret paulo. 🙂

Parte 2 coming …

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Friday, September 11th, 2009 | Author:

Peace in the land of USB

Under a *nix operating system, having multiple partitions on a USB drive isn’t rocket science, it just works. In mea causa, my USB drive has two partitions because the first partition is a bootable Fornicem Linux installer.

I have Windows on a desktop at homemostly for gamingand many of my colleagues use it too. Since Windows doesn’t do very well with non-Windows partitions I figured I could create a FAT32 partition on the memory stick after the bootable Arch Linux partition. FAT32 is almost ubiquitous and is usable on every common desktop operating system in the world.

Bleh

Unfortunately it doesn’t work straight off the bat. Apparently, Microsoft in their infinite wisdom decided that memory sticks are supposed to have one (and only one) partition. In reality Windows finds the first partition and then ignores any others that happen to be set up:

Please Format

Err, no, I do not want you to format my Arch Linux installation partition

The trick to getting it working is to fool Windows into thinking the device is non a regular USB memory stick but perhaps a solid-state hard disk which happens to be connected via USB. Yes I know, this is seriously stupid that Windows behaves this way. A solid-state hard disk is just a whopping big (and fast) memory stick after all!

I found a few sources on how to do this however I still had to figure out some things on my own. Specifically, the guides I found either skipped some steps or didn’t provide enough information on where to download the driver package.

This procedure involves manually changing hardware drivers and installingnon-signeddriversnot intended for your hardware”. I know someone is going to break their system and blame me so I say now that I take no responsibility for any damage you may do to your Windows system as a result of this. Read that again. 😛

Instructions

remove the highlighted text

click for larger version

Download and unzip the driver, originally created by Hitachi, hic. Open the cfadisk.inf file in notepad (or your favourite plaintext editor), and find the section labeled [cfadisk_device]. Remove the section highlighted on the right:

Minimize (don’t close) the editor and go to your desktop iconsright-click on My Computer and select Properties. Select the hardware tab and then select [Device Manager]:

System Properties

Find the device underDisk drives”, right-click your memory stick and select Properties:

Device Manager

Click the Details tab and in the dropdown box on that page, selectHardware Ids”. Click the first line in the list of Hardware IDs and press Ctrl+C to copy the name:

USB Hardware Ids

Don’t close this dialog, go back to notepad (which was minimised) and paste the hardware ID into where the previous content was removed.

Changes pasted into notepad

Save the file in notepad and go back to the device’s property dialog window. Click theDrivertab and click the [Update Driver…] button. In the windows that pop up, selectNo, not this time”; [Neros] -> “Install from a list or a specific location (Advanced)”; [Neros] -> “Don’t search. I will choose the driver to install.”; [Neros] -> [Have Disk…].

Unsigned Drivers - Click Continue Anyway

Browse to the folder where you have saved the modified cfadisk.inf file. Click [OK]. You will find

there is a Hitachi Microdrive driver listed. Select this and click [Neros]. When the warning

appears, click [Yes]. Another warning will pop up regarding a similar issue (these are theunsigned” et “not intended for your hardwarewarnings I mentioned earlier). Click [Continue Anyway]:

At this point I recommend closing all the dialog boxes related to the setup. Finally, remove and re-insert the memory stick into your USB port and you should find that the extra partitions on the stick are accessible. In the worst-case scenario, you might still need to partition the disk however the hard part is over. 🙂

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Wednesday, April 22nd, 2009 | Author:

Fornicem Linux’s installation process is documented on the Arch wiki. I recommend that persons new to Arch try the excellent Beginner’s Guide instead of the Official Arch Linux Install Guide. Though both wiki entries cover similar ground, the Beginner’s Guide gives a lot more relevant information for those new to the system. The Beginner’s Guide is aimed at desktop installation and, as I’m installing a server, I won’t be going through the installation of the graphical environment at all. Assuming that you’re following my installation, assume that I’ve followed the Beginner’s Guide right up to and including the installation of sudo. I installed the ssh daemon afterwards rather than during the initial setup however.

A few small recommendations and notes regarding installation:

  • If you can, consider using a USB memory stick for the installer and keep it handy for future installations.
  • I keep a copy of my localrepositoryof installed applications on my installer memory stick. Once installation is finished I save a bit of download and update time by copying this to the new server’s /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ folder. The repository on my desktop is typically 1.7GB
  • For the rc.conf, South African-appropriate regional settings are:
    LOCALE=en_ZA.utf8
    TIMEZONE=Africa/Johannesburg
  • I’ve set up the network very simply, according to the guide, and will be expanding on the network setup in a later post.
  • As it is for a server, my non-privileged user on the server is only part of 3 groups: wheel (for sudo), storage, and users. A desktop user will likely be in many more groups.

I prefer using an application called yaourt instead of Arch’s default package manager. Yaourt has the exact same usage syntax as pacman except that it supports a few extra options. It is actually a wrapper application in that it, in turn, uses pacman. Importantly, yaourt supports installation of applications from Arch’s AUR. In AUR is a repository of installation scripts built by Arch users for Arch users to easily install applications that are not officially supported by the main Arch repositories. Yaourt can download and install applications from AUR or the main repositories with the same command, treating the AUR asjust another repository”. Pacman unfortunately does not support this.

Again, the installation is covered in the wiki. I recommend the easy route mentioned in the wiki if you’re new at Arch. Its too much too soon to do it the hard way (also mentioned in the wiki entry).

When done, update your system by issuing the single command:

yaourt -Syu

OR

pacman -Syu

and follow the given recommendations.

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Saturday, March 28th, 2009 | Author:

Its amazing how much you can do by combining the small yet powerful commands Unix has available.

This little-used command, time, finally became useful today as a way to report the length of time that certain automated operations are running. In my example, I’m timing how long it takes to build the Linux kernel:

$ time rebuild-kernel26
...
couple-thousand-lines-of-scrolling-text
...
==> Finished making: kernel26 2.6.28.8-1 x86_64 (Sat Mar 28 17:19:52 SAST 2009)
real    62m21.994s
user    43m31.846s
sys     6m1.096s

Yup, that took a little over an hour to build. The values are:

  • realthe actual time elapsed while the command was running – 62 minutes
  • userthe amount of userland time the command used – 43 minutes
  • systhe amount of system time the command used – 6 minutes

(I was busy doing other things while this was happening which is why it took 62 minutes for the desktop to do (43+6=) 49 minutes-worth of work)

If you’re using the GNU version (most likely), it also gives you the option of displaying the results in a custom fashion. Mostly, this command could be useful in scripts where you need to report how long a task tookor maybe? just a geeky way to time something random. 😛

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