Author Archive

Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • ສ່ວນ 1 – ການ​ນໍາ​ສະ​ເຫນີ – ການ​ສ້າງ​ຕັ້ງ​ຄິວ​ງ່າຍ​ດາຍ (ກະ​ທູ້​ນີ້)
  • ສ່ວນ 2 – ຄວາມ​ຫມັ້ນ​ຄົງ​ກ​ໍ​າ​ນົດ​ຈະ​ລາ​ຈອນ – ການ​ຕັ້ງ​ຄ່າ​ຈີກ​ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ (ມາ​ບໍ່​ດົນ TM)
  • ສ່ວນ 3 – ບູ​ລິ​ມະ​ສິດ​ແລະ​ຂໍ້​ຈໍາ​ກັດ – ການ​ສ້າງ​ຕັ້ງ​ເປັນ​ໄມ້​ຢືນ​ຕົ້ນ​ແຖວ (ມາ​ບໍ່​ດົນ TM)
  • ສ່ວນ 4 – Monitoring Usage – Redefining Queues – Limiting Abusive Devices (ມາ​ບໍ່​ດົນ TM)
  • ສ່ວນ 5 – ??? ກ​ໍ​າ​ໄລ ???

ການ​ນໍາ​ສະ​ເຫນີ

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. ໂດຍ​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ບໍ່​ມີ​ໃຜ​ຮູ້​ວ່າ​ເປັນ​ຫຍັງ, ຜູ້​ທີ່, ຫຼື​ສິ່ງ​ທີ່​ຈະ​ກໍ່​ໃຫ້​ເກີດ​ບັນ​ຫາ – except of course everyone blames the ISP. ບາງ​ຄັ້ງ​ມັນ​ມີ ISP ໄດ້ – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “ສະ​ຖານ​ທີ່ / ສະ​ຖານ​ທີ່” ການ​ນໍາ​ໃຊ້​ທີ່ QoS ການ​ຄຸ້ມ​ຄອງ​ການ​ເຊື່ອມ​ຕໍ່​ອິນ​ເຕີ​ເນັດ​ຂອງ​ພວກ​ເຂົາ. ຫນຶ່ງ​ແມ່ນ​ການ​ເຮັດ​ວຽກ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ແລ້ວ​ພຽງ​ແຕ່​ການ​ເຊື່ອມ​ຕໍ່​ບ້ານ​ແຕ່​ທາງ​ເລືອກ, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-ຜູ້​ຊາຍ (ແລະ​ການ​ຂະ​ຫຍາຍ​ຕົວ) LAN. ມ່ວນ. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS ແລະ

MikroTik's RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, ເຊັ່ນ​: DD​, WRT, SmoothWall, Untangle, ແລະ​ດັງ​ນີ້​ຕໍ່​ໄປ. ສ່ວນ​ໃຫຍ່​ເຫຼົ່າ​ນີ້​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ຮຽກ​ຮ້ອງ​ໃຫ້​ມີ​ທ່ານ​ທີ່​ມີ​ເຄື່ອງ​ແມ່​ຂ່າຍ spare ນອນ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ຫຼື​ເຕີ​ຮາດ​ແວ​ທີ່​ເຫມາະ​ສົມ. Mikrotik ຂາຍ​ໃນ​ລາ​ຄາ RouterBoards ທີ່​ມີ RouterOS builtin – ແລະ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ມີ​ລາ​ຄາ​ບໍ່​ແພງ.

ປະ​ສົບ​ການ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ກັບ routers ເປັນ​ຕົ້ນ​ຕໍ​ມີ Cisco ແລະ MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Allot ຂອງ NetEnforcer / NetXplorer ລະ​ບົບ​ແລະ MikroTik. ການ MikroTik ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ​ທີ່​ຫຼາຍ​ທີ່​ສຸດ​ໃນ​ປະ​ສົບ​ການ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ (ອື່ນ​ກ​່​ວາ​ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ​ຂອງ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ທີ່​ອຸ​ທິດ​ຕົນ​ທີ່​ມີ​ລະ​ດັບ wireless) ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ຂອງ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ rb750 (ສະ​ບັບ​ໃຫມ່​ທີ່​ມີ​ຊື່ “Hex“) ແລະ rb950-ກະ​ດານ​ອີງ. ພວກ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ມີ ຄົນ​ຈໍາ​ນວນ​ຫຼາຍ available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ມັກ​ການ​ອະ​ທິ​ບາຍ​ປະ MikroTik ເປັນ “90% ຄຸນ​ນະ​ສົມ​ບັດ​ທີ່ 10% ຄ່າ​ໃຊ້​ຈ່າຍ​ໃນ”. ໃນ​ຖາ​ນະ​ເປັນ​ຄູ່​ມື​ນີ້​ແມ່ນ​ເພື່ອ​ແນ​ໃສ່​ຕົ້ນ​ຕໍ​ຢູ່​ໃນ SME / ການ​ນໍາ​ໃຊ້​ຫນ້າ​ທໍາ​ອິດ, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, ສັງ​ເກດ​ວ່າ routers MikroTik ເຮັດ​ແນວ​ໃດ ບໍ່ typically include DSL modems, ດັ່ງ​ນັ້ນ​ຈຶ່ງ​ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ​ທີ່​ມີ​ຢູ່​ແລ້ວ​ຂອງ​ທ່ານ​ເປັນ​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ຍັງ​ມີ​ຄວາມ​ຈໍາ. ສັງ​ເກດ​ວ່າ​ນີ້​ແມ່ນ ບໍ່ Tutorial ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ການ​ສ້າງ​ຕັ້ງ​ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ MikroTik ຈາກ scratch. ບໍ່​ມີ​ພໍ​ສົມ​ຂອງ​ຜູ້​ນໍາ​ທ່ຽວ​ທີ່​ມີ​ອອນ​ໄລ​ນ​໌​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ​ທີ່​ມີ​ຢູ່​ແລ້ວ​ເປັນ.

ທິດ​ສະ​ດີ​ເຂົ້າ​ໃນ​ການ​ປະ​ຕິ​ບັດ – ຂັ້ນ​ຕອນ​ທໍາ​ອິດ

ການ​ຕັ້ງ​ຄ່າ QoS ຖືກ​ຕ້ອງ, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • ເຊື່ອມ​ຕໍ່​ຄວາມ​ໄວ​ໂດຍ​ລວມ
  • ວິ​ທີ​ການ​ຈໍາ​ນວນ​ຫຼາຍ​ຜູ້​ຊົມ​ໃຊ້ / ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ​ຈະ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ນໍາ​ໃຊ້​ການ​ເຊື່ອມ​ຕໍ່
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

ເພື່ອ​ບັນ​ລຸ​ໄດ້​ດ້ານ​ເທິງ​ໃນ​ຕົວ​ຢ່າງ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ, ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຈະ​ສົມ​ມຸດ​ດັ່ງ​ຕໍ່​ໄປ​ນີ້:

  • MikroTik ໄດ້​ຖືກ​ສ້າງ​ຕັ້ງ​ຂຶ້ນ​ກັບ​ການ​ຕັ້ງ​ຄ່າ​ເຄືອ​ຂ່າຍ​ເລີ່ມ​ຕົ້ນ​ທີ່​ເຄືອ​ຂ່າຍ​ທ້ອງ​ຖິ່ນ​ແມ່ນ 192.168.88.0/24 ແລະ​ການ​ເຊື່ອມ​ຕໍ່​ອິນ​ເຕີ​ເນັດ​ໄດ້​ຖືກ​ສະ​ຫນອງ​ໃຫ້​ໂດຍ​ຜ່ານ​ການ PPPoE.
  • ຄວາມ​ໄວ​ການ​ເຊື່ອມ​ຕໍ່​ແມ່ນ 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps ຄວາມ​ໄວ​ດາວ​ໂຫຼດ; 2 ຄວາມ​ໄວ​ອັບ​ໂຫລດ Mbps)
  • ຈະ​ມີ​ການ 5 ຜູ້​ໃຊ້​ທີ່​ມີ​ເປັນ​ຈໍາ​ນວນ​ຫຼາຍ 15 ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ (ຄອມ​ພິວ​ເຕີ​ທີ່​ຫຼາກ​ຫຼາຍ / ເມັດ​ໂທລະ​ສັບ​ມື​ຖື / etc / WiFi)
  • ດາວ​ໂຫຼດ​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ຮຽກ​ຮ້ອງ​ໃຫ້​ບູ​ລິ​ມະ​ສິດ​ສູງ​ທີ່​ມີ throughput ແຕ່​ຕ​່​ໍ​າ​ບູ​ລິ​ມະ​ສິດ​ທີ່​ມີ latency
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • ຜູ້​ຊົມ​ໃຊ້​ທີ່​ບໍ່​ມີ​ແມ່ນ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ບຸ​ລິ​ມະ​ສິດ​ຫຼາຍ​ກວ່າ​ຄົນ​ອື່ນ

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a ແຖວ​ງ່າຍ​ດາຍ.

ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ເປັນ script ສັ້ນ​ທີ່​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ບັນ​ທຶກ​ໄວ້​ໃນ MikroTik ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຈະ​ສ້າງ​ຕັ້ງ​ຂຶ້ນ​ຄິວ​ງ່າຍ​ດາຍ. ມັນ​ເປັນ​ດັ່ງ​ຕໍ່​ໄປ​ນີ້:

:ສໍາ​ລັບ x ຈາກ 1 ການ 254 do ={
 /ຄິວ​ຊື່ add ງ່າຍ​ດາຍ ="ອິນ​ເຕີ​ເນັດ usage-​, $ x" dst ="PPPoE" ສູງ​ສຸດ​ທີ່​ເຄຍ​ຂອບ​ເຂດ​ຈໍາ​ກັດ​, = 1900k / 9500k target ="192.168.88.$x"
}

ສິ່ງ​ທີ່​ຢູ່​ຂ້າງ​ເທິງ​ບໍ່​ຈໍາ​ກັດ​ເປັນ​ຄວາມ​ໄວ​ສູງ​ສຸດ​ອຸ​ປະ​ກອນ​ບຸກ​ຄົນ​ໃດ​ຫນຶ່ງ​ສາ​ມາດ​ນໍາ​ໃຊ້​ໃນ​ການ “1900k” (1.9Mb) ອັບ​ແລະ “9500k” (9.5Mb) ດາວ​ໂຫລດ.

ຫມາຍ​ເຫດ:

  • ເຫດ​ຜົນ​ທີ່​ວ່າ​ເປັນ​ຫຍັງ​ຂໍ້​ຈໍາ​ກັດ​ສູງ​ສຸດ​ແມ່ນ​ຢູ່​ໃນ 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. ສໍາ​ລັບ​ຕົວ​ຢ່າງ, ມີ 100 ຜູ້​ໃຊ້​ໃນ​ການ​ບໍ​ລິ​ການ 20Mb ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ອາດ​ຈະ​ກໍາ​ນົດ​ຂອບ​ເຂດ​ຈໍາ​ກັດ​ນີ້​ເພື່ອ 15MB ຫຼື​ແມ່ນ​ແຕ່​ພຽງ​ເລັກ​ນ້ອຍ​ເທົ່າ​ທີ່​ເປັນ 1Mb. ນີ້​ແມ່ນ​ທັງ​ຫມົດ​ຂຶ້ນ​ກັບ​ວິ​ທີ​ການ “ໃຊ້​ໃນ​ທາງ​ຜິດ” ຜູ້​ຊົມ​ໃຊ້​ແມ່ນ​ແລະ, ຕາມ​ທີ່​ທ່ານ​ສະ​ບ່ອນ​ທີ່​ແລະ​ວິ​ທີ​ການ​ລ່ວງ​ລະ​ເມີດ​ຫຼາຍ​ເກີດ​ຂຶ້ນ, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • ຄໍາ​ນໍາ​ຫນ້າ “ອິນ​ເຕີ​ເນັດ​ການ​ນໍາ​ໃຊ້​,” ໃນ​ຕົວ​ກໍາ​ນົດ​ຊື່​ທີ່​ສາ​ມາດ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ customized. ໂດຍ​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ກໍາ​ນົດ​ເຫຼົ່າ​ນີ້​ເພື່ອ​ສົ່ງ​ກັບ​ຊື່​ສະ​ຖານ​ທີ່. ສໍາ​ລັບ​ຕົວ​ຢ່າງ, with premises named “ບໍ່​ມີ​ເພດ​;” ແລະ “ການ​ທົດ​ລອງ”, ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ຈະ​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້ “ອິນ​ເຕີ​ເນັດ​ບໍ່​ມີ​ເພດ​;” ແລະ “ອິນ​ເຕີ​ເນັດ​ທົດ​ລອງ”. ນີ້​ຈະ​ຊ່ວຍ​ໃຫ້​ມີ​ສັນ​ຊາດ​ຕະ​ຍານ​ຄວາມ​ແຕກ​ຕ່າງ​ລະ​ຫວ່າງ​ສະ​ຖານ​ທີ່.
  • ຕົວ​ກໍາ​ນົດ​ການ dst ມີ “PPPoE” ໃນ​ຕົວ​ຢ່າງ. ນີ້​ຄວນ​ຈະ​ຖືກ​ແທນ​ດ້ວຍ​ຊື່​ຂອງ​ການ ການ​ໂຕ້​ຕອບ that provides the Internet connection.

ຮັບ​ປະ​ກັນ​ໃຫ້​ທ່ານ​ປັບ script ເພື່ອ​ຈະ​ເຫມາະ​ສົມ​ກັບ​ການ​ຕັ້ງ​ຄ່າ​ຂອງ​ທ່ານ. ຊ່ວຍ​ປະ​ຢັດ script ໃນ​ການ MikroTik ແລະ​ດໍາ​ເນີນ​ການ – ຫຼື​ວາງ​ມັນ​ໂດຍ​ກົງ​ເຂົ້າ​ໄປ​ໃນ​ສະ​ຖາ​ນີ MikroTik ຂອງ​ການ​ປະ​ຕິ​ບັດ​ມັນ.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as ຈີກ ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ. ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ​ເຫລົ່າ​ນີ້​ຮັບ​ໃຊ້​ເພື່ອ​ກໍາ​ນົດ / ຈັດ​ແບ່ງ​ປະ​ເພດ​ຂອງ​ເຄືອ​ຂ່າຍ​ໃນ​ຄໍາ​ສັ່ງ​ທີ່​ຈະ​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້ QoS finer​, grained ເປັນ​ໄປ​ໄດ້.

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Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:

ຄວາມ​ເປັນ​ສ່ວນ​ຕົວ, ທີ່​ໃຊ້​ເວ​ລາ, ເງິນ

ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ບໍ່​ຕ້ອງ​ການ​ຄໍາ​ສັ່ງ​ເດ​ບິດ. ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ບໍ່​ເຄີຍ liked ຄວາມ​ຄິດ​ທີ່​ວ່າ​ນິ​ຕິ​ບຸກ​ຄົນ​ອື່ນ​ສາ​ມາດ​ເຮັດ​ໄດ້, ຢູ່​ທີ່​ຈະ, ໃຊ້​ເວ​ລາ​ເກືອບ​ຈໍາ​ນວນ​ເງິນ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ (ດີ … ສິ່ງ​ໃດ​ກໍ​ຕາມ​ທີ່​ມີ​ຢູ່). ເພື່ອນ​ຮ່ວມ​ງານ A ຊີ້​ໃຫ້​ເຫັນ​ບັນ​ຫາ​ທີ່​ມີ MTN ຈະ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ຫຼີກ​ເວັ້ນ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ນໍາ​ໃຊ້​ຄໍາ​ສັ່ງ​ເດ​ບິດ. ບາງ​ທີ​ໄດ້ “ສະ​ດວກ​ສະ​ບາຍ” ປັດ​ໄຈ​ທີ່​ບໍ່​ແມ່ນ​ດັ່ງ​ກ່າວ​ເປັນ​ສິ່ງ​ທີ່​ບໍ່​ດີ.

ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຄິດ​ວ່າ​ຄໍາ​ຖາມ​ສຸດ​ທ້າຍ​ນີ້​ບໍ່​ວ່າ​ຈະ​ເປັນ​ຫຼື​ບໍ່​ທ່ານ​ຕ້ອງ​ການ​ຄວາມ​ສະ​ດວກ​ແລະ​ສາ​ມາດ​ໄວ້​ວາງ​ໃຈ​ສະ​ຖາ​ບັນ​ການ (ໃນ​ກໍ​ລະ​ນີ​ທີ່​ມີ​ເງິນ​ຂອງ​ທ່ານ) – ຫຼື​ຖ້າ​ຫາກ​ວ່າ​ທ່ານ​ບໍ່​ສາ​ມາດ​ໄວ້​ວາງ​ໃຈ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ແລະ​ເຕັມ​ໃຈ​ທີ່​ຈະ​ຮ​ັ​ຄວາມ​ສະ​ດວກ​ທີ່. ໃນ​ກໍ​ລະ​ນີ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ, ເຖິງ​ແມ່ນ​ວ່າ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຍັງ​ມີ​ຄໍາ​ຖາມ​ຄວາມ​ສະ​ດວກ, ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ຮຽນ​ຮູ້​ວິ​ທີ​ທີ່​ຍາກ​ກັບ MTN ວ່າ​ມັນ doubly ສາ​ມາດ​ຈະ​ບໍ່​ສະ​ດວກ​ທີ່​ຈະ​ມີ​ໂລກ​ຕໍ່​ຂອງ​ທ່ານ​ຫຼຸດ​ລົງ “ເກາະ​ຫ່າງ​ໄກ​ສອກ​ຫຼີກ” ສະ​ຖາ​ນະ​ພາບ. ເກືອບ​ວ່າ​ທຸກ​ຄົນ​ມື້​ນີ້​ໄປ​ກັບ​ປັດ​ໄຈ​ທີ່​ສະ​ດວກ​ສະ​ບາຍ.

ສະ​ດວກ​ສະ​ບາຍ

ໃນ​ອີກ​ດ້ານ​ຫນຶ່ງ, ໃນ​ປັດ​ຈຸ​ບັນ​ເປັນ​ເວ​ລາ​ດົນ​ນານ​ກ່ອນ​ຫນ້າ​ນີ້, I had a dispute with ການ​ສອດ​ຄ່ອງ​ກັບ​ດາວ ບ່ອນ​ທີ່​ສະ​ດວກ​ສະ​ບາຍ​ເປັນ​ດາບ​ສອງ​ຄົມ. ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ລາຍ​ງານ​ການ​ປະ​ຕິ​ບັດ​ທຸ​ລະ​ກິດ​ຂອງ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ກັບ​ຄະ​ນະ​ກໍາ​ມະ​ການ​ຮ້ອງ​ຮຽນ​ຜູ້​ບໍ​ລິ​ໂພກ (ນັບ​ຕັ້ງ​ແຕ່​ກໍາ​ລັງ​, ການ​ຈັດ​ຕັ້ງ​ເປັນ ຄະ​ນະ​ກໍາ​ມະ​ຊາດ​ຜູ້​ບໍ​ລິ​ໂພກ) and never got feedback from them. The gist of the issue is that Planet Fitness’s sales agent lied to me and a friend in order to get more commission/money out of my pocket.

ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ເປັນ ສ Discovery ສະ​ມາ​ຊິກ​ທີ່​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ຜົນ​ປະ​ໂຫຍດ​ຫຼາຍ, ລວມ​ທັງ​ລາ​ຄາ​ຂອງ​ຍີ່​ຫໍ້​ນິ​ຍົມ – ສ່ວນ​ຫຼາຍ​ແມ່ນ​ສຸ​ຂະ​ພາບ​ທີ່​ກ່ຽວ​ຂ້ອງ​ແນ່​ນອນ, as Discovery is a Medical Aid/Health Insurance provider. ເພື່ອ​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ມັນ​ພຽງ​ແຕ່, ການ​ຄົ້ນ​ພົບ​ແມ່ນ​ຫນ້າ​ຫວາດ​ສຽວ. ຜົນ​ປະ​ໂຫຍດ​ອັນ​ສໍາ​ຄັນ​ຂອງ​ການ​ປົກ​ຫຸ້ມ​ສະ​ມາ​ຊິກ gym ທີ່​ມີ​ຕໍ່​ປະ​ກອບ​ອອກ​ກໍາ​ລັງ​ກາຍ​ດາວ. You still have to pay something, ເປັນ token ຂະ​ຫນາດ​ນ້ອຍ​ຂອງ​ການ​ຄັດ, ການ​ຄົ້ນ​ພົບ, ສໍາ​ລັບ​ສະ​ມາ​ຊິກ gym ໄດ້. ແຕ່, ຫຼັງ​ຈາກ​ທີ່​ທັງ​ຫມົດ, ພວກ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ຕ້ອງ​ການ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຈະ​ມີ​ສຸ​ຂະ​ພາບ, so they don’t mind footing the bulk of the bill. ແຕ່, ປາ​ກົດ​ຂື້ນ, ນີ້​ຫມາຍ​ຄວາມ​ວ່າ​ກໍາ​ລັງ​ກາຍ​ດາວ’ ຕົວ​ແທນ​ຂາຍ​ບໍ່​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ຄະ​ນະ​ກໍາ​ມະ​ການ!

ສະ​ນັ້ນ​ບໍ່​ສິ່ງ​ທີ່​ຜົນ​ໃນ​ນີ້? ຜົນ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ແມ່ນ​ວ່າ PF ຂອງ​ຕົວ​ແທນ​ຂາຍ​ໃຫ້​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ເປັນ​ຕົວ​ເລກ​ອັດ​ຕາ​ເງິນ​ເຟີ້​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ “ສ​ໃສ່” ສະ​ມາ​ຊິກ. ພຣະ​ອົງ​ໄດ້​ຕົວະ. ພຣະ​ອົງ​ໄດ້​ຫຼັງ​ຈາກ​ນັ້ນ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ລົງ​ນາມ​ໃນ​ເສັ້ນ​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ລາ​ຄາ​ທີ່​ອັດ​ຕາ​ເງິນ​ເຟີ້​ຂອງ “ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ” ສະ​ມາ​ຊິກ (ແມ່ນ​ແລ້ວ, ມັນ​ໃນ​ຕົວ​ຈິງ​ແມ່ນ​ຫຼາຍ​ກ​່​ວາ​ເຖິງ​ແມ່ນ​ວ່າ​ເປັນ​ສະ​ມາ​ຊິກ​ເປັນ​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ​ຈະ​ມີ​ຄ່າ​ໃຊ້​ຈ່າຍ), ending up about 4 ແລະ 5 ເວ​ລາ​ຫຼາຍ​ເທົ່າ​ທີ່​ເປັນ​ສະ​ມາ​ຊິກ​ສ​ທີ່​ໄດ້.

Epiphany

Some time in 2011 ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ສຸດ​ທ້າຍ​ໄດ້ wisened ເຖິງ​ຄ່າ​ໃຊ້​ຈ່າຍ​ທີ່​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຄວນ​ຈະ​ຖືກ​ຈ່າຍ. Discovery ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ແນ່​ໃຈວ່​າ​ຈະ​ບໍ່​ມີ​ຄວາມ​ສຸກ​ເກີນ​ໄປ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ຄວາມ​ລົ້ມ​ເຫລວ​ນີ້. ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ໂອ້​ລົມ​ກັບ​ຜູ້​ຈັດ​ການ​ຢູ່​ໃນ gym ໄດ້, ແລະ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ປະ​ກັນ​ວ່າ​ສັນ​ຍາ​ທັງ​ຫມົດ​ຈະ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ຢຸດ. ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ບໍ່​ຫນຶ່ງ​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ​ໃຊ້​ຄວາມ​ຮຸນ​ແຮງ … ເວັ້ນ​ເສຍ​ແຕ່​ວ່າ​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ​ແຂ່ງ​ຂັນ​ກິ​ລາ​ຂອງ​ຕົນ … ໃນ Octagon ເປັນ … ແຕ່​ວ່າ​ຫຼັງ​ຈາກ​ການ​ຢ້ຽມ​ຢາມ 5 ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ກັບ​ຜູ້​ຈັດ​ການ​ໃນ​ການ​ຖາມ​ວ່າ​ເປັນ​ຫຍັງ​ຄໍາ​ສັ່ງ​ເດ​ບິດ​ທີ່​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ຍັງ​ເກີດ​ຂຶ້ນ, ພຣະ​ອົງ​ໄດ້​ບອກ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ວ່າ​ປະ​ຫລາດ​ໃຈ​ທີ່​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ບໍ່​ໄດ້​ນໍາ​ເອົາ​ອາ​ວຸດ​ກັບ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ​ຢ້ຽມ​ຢາມ. ຫຼັງ​ຈາກ​ການ​ໄປ​ຢ້ຽມ​ຢາມ​ຫຼາຍ​ເປັນ​ຈໍາ​ນວນ​ຫນ້ອຍ, ຜູ້​ຈັດ​ການ​ໄດ້​ປະ​ໄວ້​ໃນ​ຕົວ​ຈິງ​ແມ່ນ​ສອດ​ຄ່ອງ​ກັບ​ດາວ​ແລະ​ອະ​ທິ​ບາຍ​ໃຫ້​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ວ່າ “ສັນ​ຍາ” was between myself and Head Office and that the local gym, ປາ​ກົດ​ຂື້ນ​ການ​ດໍາ​ເນີນ​ງານ​ລະ​ແບບ, ໄດ້​ພຽງ​ເລັກ​ນ້ອຍ​ກັບ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ​ບໍ່​ມີ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ການ​ບໍ່​ວ່າ​ຈະ​ເປັນ​ຫຼື​ບໍ່​ມັນ​ຈະ​ສາ​ມາດ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ຍົກ​ເລີກ. ຖ້າ​ຫາກ​ວ່າ​ຫົວ​ຫນ້າ​ຫ້ອງ​ການ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ​ບໍ່​ມີ, ໂຊກ tough.

By this point I’d lost it. I had my bank put a ຢຸດ​ເຊົາ​ການ ຄໍາ​ສັ່ງ​ເດ​ບິດ. It was a huge schlep: I had to contact the bank every month because the debit order descriptions would change ever so slightly. It also cost me a little every couple of months to “ຄືນ” the blocking ການ​ບໍ​ລິ​ການ. ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ບໍ່​ສາ​ມາດ​ຊ່ວຍ​ໃຫ້​ແຕ່​ຄິດ​ວ່າ​ລະ​ບົບ​ທະ​ນາ​ຄານ​ໄດ້​ສະ​ຫນັບ​ສະ​ຫນູນ ການ​ສະ​ແດງ​ອອກ​ເປັນ​ປົກ​ກະ​ຕິ ແຕ່​ພະ​ນັກ​ງານ​ທີ່​ບໍ່​ຈໍາ​ເປັນ​ຕ້ອງ​ຮູ້​ຈັກ​ວິ​ທີ​ການ​ນໍາ​ໃຊ້​ມັນ.

Technically I’m still waiting on the CCC to get back to me (ບໍ່​ເຄີຍ​ເກີດ​ຂຶ້ນ – ແລະ​ແນ່​ນອນ​ພວກ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ Re ການ​ຈັດ​ຕັ້ງ​ທີ່​ໄດ້​ກ່າວ​ມາ​ຂ້າງ​ເທິງ​ນັ້ນ​ກໍ​ລະ​ນີ​ທີ່​ອາດ​ຈະ​ຫຼຸດ​ລົງ​ໂດຍ​ຜ່ານ​ການ Crack ໄດ້). ແນ່​ນອນ, ໂດຍ​ຈຸດ​ທີ່ PF ຍັງ​ຕ້ອງ​ການ​ຢາກ blacklist ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ​ບໍ່​ໄດ້​ຈ່າຍ​ເງິນ!

Hero ການ​ທີ່​ບໍ່​ຄາດ​ຄິດ

A ກ່າວ haphazard ຂອງ​ບັນ​ຫາ​ກັບ Discovery ໄດ້ (ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຄິດ​ວ່າ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ເອີ້ນ​ວ່າ​ພວກ​ເຂົາ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ການ​ຢ້ຽມ​ຢາມ​ຫມໍ​ແຂ້ວ​ເປັນ) ຜົນ​ການ​ເອີ້ນ​ໂດຍ​ການ​ຫນຶ່ງ​ຂອງ​ຕົວ​ແທນ​ຂອງ Discovery. ພວກ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ​ຫຼັງ​ຈາກ​ນັ້ນ​ຮ້ອງ​ຂໍ​ໃຫ້​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ເພື່ອ​ອະ​ທິ​ບາຍ​ບັນ​ຫາ, ໃນ​ລາຍ​ລະ​ອຽດ​ແລະ​ລາຍ​ລັກ​ອັກ​ສອນ, ການ​ທີ່​ດີກ​ວ່າ​ອະ​ທິ​ບາຍ​ຈາກ​ທັດ​ສະ​ນະ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ເຖິງ​ສິ່ງ​ທີ່​ໄດ້​ເກີດ​ຂຶ້ນ​ແທ້. ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ມີ​ພັນ​ທະ. ມັນ turns ໃຫ້​ເຫັນ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ນີ້​ແມ່ນ​ສິດ​ທິ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ພວກ​ເຂົາ​ບໍ່​ໄດ້​ເປັນ “ຍິນ​ດີ​ເກີນ​ໄປ” ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ມັນ. ໃນ​ຄວາມ​ເປັນ​ຈິງ​ພວກ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ ແທ້ ບໍ່​ໄດ້​ມັກ​ມັນ. About three weeks later, ການ​ສອດ​ຄ່ອງ​ກັບ​ດາວ​ຄືນ​ຂ້າ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ໃນ​ການ​ທັງ​ຫມົດ​ສໍາ​ລັບ​ການ​ເງິນ​ທັງ​ຫມົດ​ທີ່​ເຄີຍ​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ຄ່າ​ຈ້າງ​ເພື່ອ​ໃຫ້​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ.

ການ​ຄົ້ນ​ພົບ​ແມ່ນ​ຫນ້າ​ຫວາດ​ສຽວ. 🙂

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Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

I had a power outage affect my server’s large md RAID array. Rather than let the server as a whole be down while waiting for it to complete an fsck, I had it boot without the large array so I could run the fsck manually.

However, when running it manually I realised I had no way of knowing how far it was and how long it would take to complete. This is especially problematic with such a large array. With a little searching I found the tip of adding the -C parameter when calling fsck. I couldn’t find this in the documentation however: fsckhelp showed no such option.

The option turns out to be ext4-specific, and thus shows a perfectly functional progress bar with a percentage indicator. To find the information, instead offsckhelporman fsck”, you have to inputfsck.ext4helporman fsck.ext4”. 🙂

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Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

History

Much had changed since I last mentioned my personal serverit has grown by leaps and bounds (it now has a 7TB md RAID6) and it had recently been rebuilt with Ubuntu Server.

Arch was never a mistake. Arch Linux had already taught me so much about Linux (and will continue to do so on my other desktop). But Arch definitely requires more time and attention than I would like to spend on a server. Ideally I’d prefer to be able to forget about the server for a while until a reminder email saysumthere’s a couple updates you should look at, buddy.

Space isn’t freeand neither is space

The opportunity to migrate to Ubuntu was the fact that I had run out of SATA ports, the ports required to connect hard drives to the rest of the computerthat 7TB RAID array uses a lot of ports! I had even given away my very old 200GB hard disk as it took up one of those ports. I also warned the recipient that the disk’s SMART monitoring indicated it was unreliable. As a temporary workaround to the lack of SATA ports, I had even migrated the server’s OS to a set of four USB sticks in an md RAID1. Crazy. I know. I wasn’t too happy about the speed. I decided to go out and buy a new reliable hard drive and a SATA expansion card to go with it.

The server’s primary Arch partition was using about 7GB of disk. A big chunk of that was a swap file, cached data and otherwise miscellaneous or unnecessary files. Overall the actual size of the OS, including the /home folder, was only about 2GB. This prompted me to look into a super-fast SSD drive, thinking perhaps a smaller one might not be so expensive. It turned out that the cheapest non-SSD drive I could find actually cost more than one of these relatively small SSDs. Yay for me. 🙂

Choice? Woah?!

In choosing the OS, I’d already decided it wouldn’t be Arch. Out of all the other popular distributions, I’m most familiar with Ubuntu and CentOS. Fedora was also a possibilitybut I hadn’t seriously yet considered it for a server. Ubuntu won the round.

The next decision I had to make didn’t occur to me until Ubiquity (Ubuntu’s installation wizard) asked it of me: How to set up the partitions.

I was new to using SSDs in LinuxI’m well aware of the pitfalls of not using them correctly, mostly due to their risk of poor longevity if misused.

I didn’t want to use a dedicated swap partition. I plan on upgrading the server’s motherboard/CPU/memory not too far in the future. Based on that I decided I will put swap into a swap file on the existing md RAID. The swap won’t be particularly fast but its only purpose will be for that rare occasion when something’s gone wrong and the memory isn’t available.

This then left me to give the root path the full 60GB out of an Intel 330 SSD. I considered separating /home but it just seemed a little pointless, given how little was used in the past. I first set up the partition with LVMsomething I’ve recently been doing whenever I set up a Linux box (ແທ້, there’s no excuse not to use LVM). When it got to the part where I would configure the filesystem, I clicked the drop-down and instinctively selected ext4. Then I noticed btrfs in the same list. Hang on!!

But a what?

Btrfs (“butter-eff-ess”, “better-eff-ess”, “bee-tree-eff-ess”, or whatever you fancy on the day) is a relatively new filesystem developed in order to bring Linuxfilesystem capabilities back on track with current filesystem tech. The existing King-of-the-Hill filesystem, “ext” (the current version called ext4) is pretty goodbut it is limited, stuck in an old paradigm (think of a brand new F22 Raptor vs. an F4 Phantom with a half-jested attempt at an equivalency upgrade) and is unlikely to be able to compete for very long with newer Enterprise filesystems such as Oracle’s ZFS. Btrfs still has a long way to go and is still considered experimental (depending on who you ask and what features you need). Many consider it to be stable for basic usebut nobody is going to make any guarantees. And, ແນ່​ນອນ, everyone is saying to make and test backups!

Mooooooo

The most fundamental difference between ext and btrfs is that btrfs is aCoWorCopy on Writefilesystem. This means that data is never actually deliberately overwritten by the filesystem’s internals. If you write a change to a file, btrfs will write your changes to a new location on physical media and will update the internal pointers to refer to the new location. Btrfs goes a step further in that those internal pointers (referred to as metadata) are also CoW. Older versions of ext would have simply overwritten the data. Ext4 would use a Journal to ensure that corruption won’t occur should the AC plug be yanked out at the most inopportune moment. The journal results in a similar number of steps required to update data. With an SSD, the underlying hardware operates a similar CoW process no matter what filesystem you’re using. This is because SSD drives cannot actually overwrite datathey have to copy the data (with your changes) to a new location and then erase the old block entirely. An optimisation in this area is that an SSD might not even erase the old block but rather simply make a note to erase the block at a later time when things aren’t so busy. The end result is that SSD drives fit very well with a CoW filesystem and don’t perform as well with non-CoW filesystems.

To make matters interesting, CoW in the filesystem easily goes hand in hand with a feature called deduplication. This allows two (or more) identical blocks of data to be stored using only a single copy, saving space. With CoW, if a deduplicated file is modified, the separate twin won’t be affected as the modified file’s data will have been written to a different physical block.

CoW in turn makes snapshotting relatively easy to implement. When a snapshot is made the system merely records the new snapshot as being a duplication of all data and metadata within the volume. With CoW, when changes are made, the snapshot’s data stays intact, and a consistent view of the filesystem’s status at the time the snapshot was made can be maintained.

A new friend

With the above in mind, especially as Ubuntu has made btrfs available as an install-time option, I figured it would be a good time to dive into btrfs and explore a little. 🙂

ສ່ວນ 2 coming soon

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Monday, October 29th, 2012 | Author:

It appears that, in infinite wisdom, Google have a security feature that can block an application from accessing or using your google account. I can see how this might be a problem for Google’s users, in particular their GTalk ແລະ Gmail users. In my case it was Pidgin having an issue with the Jabber ການ​ບໍ​ລິ​ການ (which is technically part of GTalk). I found the solution after a little digging. I was surprised at how old the issue was and how long this feature has existed!

To unlock the account and get your application online, use Google’s Captcha page here.

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