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Ketvirtadienis, Lapkritis 12, 2009 | Autorius:

Jei jūs kada nors rasti sau atnaujinant bendrąją paraišką Arch Linux (labai bloga idėja, BTW) ir atnaujina readline jums gali baigtis pamatyti klaidą palei linijas:
/bin/bash: error while loading shared libraries: libreadline.so.5: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
Tikimės, kad jūs vis dar turite bash greitai atidaryti, o jūs nesate uždarytas juos visus. Jei Jūs vis dar galite, nedelsiant paleisti taip:
pacman -S bash
dar jums nebus galima paleisti bash bet daugiau, nes linksmybės vis tiek būtų susieti su sena versija readline.

Taip pat, ateityje, neveikia
pacman -Sy application
(python mano atveju)
užuot, paleisti:
pacman -Syu
kuri užtikrins, kad visos paraiškos bus atnaujintos.

Asmeniškai, Manau, kad linksmybės turėjo turėti priklausomą rinkinį, sakydamas, kad jis reikalingas senas konkrečią versiją readline ir pats naujos linksmybės, reikalauti, kad nauja versija readline. Nepriklausomai, o žaisti saugu. 😉

dalis
Penktadienis, Rugsėjis 11, 2009 | Autorius:

Taika USB žemės

Pagal *nulis operacinė sistema, turėti kelis skirsnius USB yra ne raketų mokslas, jis tiesiog veikia. Mano atveju, mano USB diskas turi du skirsnius, nes pirmasis skaidinys yra startinis Arch Linux įsteigti.

Turiu Langai dėl namuose darbalaukyje – daugiausia žaidimų – ir daugelis mano kolegų naudoti jį per. Kadangi Windows negali padaryti labai gerai su ne Windows pertvaros aš raštuotas galėčiau sukurti FAT32 disko į atminties kortelę po įkrovos Arch Linux disko. FAT32 yra beveik visur ir yra naudojama kiekvieną bendrą darbastalio operacinės sistemos pasaulyje.

Bleh

Deja, tai neveikia tiesiai nuo bat. Matyt, "Microsoft" savo begalinės išminties nusprendė, kad atmintis yra manoma, kad turėti vieną (ir tik vienas) pertvara. Iš tikrųjų "Windows randa pirmą skirsnį ir tada ignoruoja visus kitus, kad atsitiktų būti įsteigtas:

Please Format

Klysti, nėra, Aš nenoriu formatuoti mano Arch Linux diegimo disko

Pavyko gauti jį dirbti yra apgauti Windows galvoti, kad prietaisas yra ne reguliariai USB atmintuką, bet galbūt kietojo kietajame diske kuris atsitinka būti prijungtas per USB. Taip, aš žinau, tai rimtai kvailas, kad Windows elgiasi tokiu būdu. Kietojo kietajame diske yra tik Didžiulį didelis (ir greitai) Memory Stick juk!

Radau kelis šaltinius, kaip tai padaryti, tačiau aš vis dar turėjo išsiaiškinti kai kuriuos dalykus on my own. Konkrečiai, vadovai radau arba praleisti tam tikrus veiksmus arba nepateikė pakankamai informacijos apie tai, kur atsisiųsti tvarkyklės paketą.

Ši procedūra apima rankiniu būdu keisti aparatūros tvarkykles ir įdiegti “neprisijungusių” vairuotojai “nėra skirtas jūsų aparatūros”. Aš žinau, kas vyksta nutraukti savo sistemą ir kaltina mane, kad aš sakau dabar, kad aš neprisiima jokios atsakomybės už bet kokią žalą gali padaryti jūsų "Windows" sistemą, kaip šis rezultatas. Skaityti, kad vėl. 😛

Instrukcijos

remove the highlighted text

spustelėkite didesnį versiją

Atsisiųskite ir išpakuokite vairuotojas, iš pradžių sukūrė "Hitachi", čia. Atidarykite cfadisk.inf failą su notepad (ar jūsų mėgstamiausia paprastojo redaktorius), ir raskite skyrių [cfadisk_device]. Pašalinti skyriuje pabrėžiama dešinėje:

Minimizuoti (Neuþdarykite) redaktorius ir eikite į savo darbalaukio piktogramos – dešiniuoju pelės mygtuku spustelėkite Mano kompiuteris ir pasirinkite PRoperties. Pasirinkite skirtuką Aparatūra ir pasirinkite [Device vadovas]:

System Properties

Ieškoti įrenginį pagal “Diskai”, dešiniuoju pelės mygtuku spustelėkite savo atminties kortelę ir pasirinkite PRoperties:

Device Manager

Spustelėkite skirtuką Išsamiau ir išskleidžiamajame laukelyje šiame puslapyje, pasirinkti “Aparatinės įrangos ID”. Spustelėkite pirmą eilutę aparatūros ID sąrašo ir paspauskite Ctrl C kopijavimui pavadinimą:

USB Hardware Ids

Negalima uždaryti šį langą, grįžti į užrašų knygelę (buvo sumažintas) ir įklijuokite aparatūros ID į kai ankstesnė turinys buvo ištrintas.

Changes pasted into notepad

Išsaugokite failą su notepad ir grįžti į įrenginio dialogo nuosavybė lange. Spauskite “Vairuotojas” skirtuką ir spustelėkite [Update Driver…] mygtukas. Į langus, kad pop-up, pasirinkti “Ar ne, tai ne tpavadinimas”; [Next] -> “Įdiegti iš sąrašo arba ųKONKREČIOS vieta (Pažangus)”; [Next] -> “Don't paieška. Aš pasirinkti vairuotojas įdiegti.”; [Next] -> [Have Disk…].

Unsigned Drivers - Click Continue Anyway

Naršyti į aplanką, kuriame įrašėte modifikuotą cfadisk.inf failą. Spragtelėjimas [Gerai]. Rasite

yra "Hitachi Microdrive" vairuotojas išvardyti. Pasirinkite tai ir paspauskite [Next]. Kai įspėjimas

atrodo, spragtelėjimas [Metaitai]. Kitas įspėjimas bus pop-up dėl panašaus klausimo (tai yra “nepasirašytos” ir “nėra skirtas jūsų aparatūros” įspėjimai minėjau anksčiau). Spragtelėjimas [Continue Šiaip]:

Šiuo metu aš rekomenduoju uždaryti visus dialogo langus, susijusius su setup. Pagaliau, išimkite ir vėl įdėkite atminties kortelę į USB prievadą ir jums reikia rasti, kad papildomos pertvaros ant lazdelės yra prieinami. Blogiausiu atveju, jūs galite vis dar reikia suskaidyti diską Tačiau sunku dalis yra per. 🙂

dalis
Sekmadienis, April 26th, 2009 | Autorius:

Trust me. We’re still dealing with regexesjust in a roundabout (and vaguely practical) way. This is a pretty comprehensive listing of how to go about flushing DNS caches while using regexes to show where similar methods deviate.

Why do we want to clear DNS caches exactly?

There are a number of reasons to clear DNS caches, though I believe these are the most common:

  • An intranet service has an private (internal) IP address when on the company network but it has a public IP address for outside access. When you try to access that service from outside after accessing it from inside, there’s a chance that you would have cached the private (inaccessible) IP. A good long-term solution is to make the service inaccessible except via VPN. A simpler solution is to leave work at work. 😛
  • An internet service or web site changes their DNS settings and your desktop/laptop is looking at theoldsetting. Šiuo atveju, the new setting has not yet propagated. Hosting Admins come across this case very often.
  • Privatumo: If someone can track your DNS history then it wouldn’t be too hard to figure out which web sites you’ve been viewing. Though the individual pages you’ve viewed can’t be tracked in this way, the hostnames, toks kaip “dogma.swiftspirit.co.za” arba “google.comwill be in the DNS cache, likely in the order you first accessed each site. There are better ways to do this though. One example is to use a Tor network for all DNS requests.

Flushing WindowsDNS cache, from command prompt:

Evidence suggests that prior to Langai 2000, Langai OS’s didn’t cache DNS results. The ipconfig command, run from the command prompt, was given some control over the DNS cache and has remained roughly the same since.

To get to the prompt if using Vista as non-Admin: Start -> Programs -> Accessories -> Right-clickCommand Prompt” -> Run As Administrator

Otherwise: Start -> Run -> [cmd ] -> [ Gerai ]

ipconfig /flushdns

Flush the DNS Resolver Cache in Windows

It is also possible to clear the cache in Windows by restarting theDNS Client” arba “Dnscache” tarnyba.

Flushing Mac OS X DNS cache, from shell prompt:

Since Mac OS X, Apple Macs have been running a Unix-based, POSIX-compliant, operating system based on Nextstep, itself originally containing code from FreeBSD ir NetBSD. Mac OS X uses lookupd arba dscacheutil to manage the DNS cache, depending on the version.

To get to the prompt: Applications -> Utilities -> Terminal

(lookupd|dscacheutil) -flushcache

What have we here? As per dalis 1, the vertical bar indicates that eitherlookupdORdscacheutilare acceptable. The parenthesis indicate that the vertical bar only applies to thelookupd|dscacheutilportion of the expression. Taip, the ” -flushcacheis not optional and must be included in the command in order for it to work. Note that these commands produce no output unless there is an error.

Use dscacheutil if you’re using Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard) or later.

Mac OS X:

lookupd -flushcache

Mac OS X Leopard:

dscacheutil -flushcache

Use dscacheutil to flush the cache in Mac OS X Leopard

There is also a GUI tool, DNS Flusher, which automatically uses the correct command available.

Flushing Linux/UnixDNS cache, from shell prompt:

N.B. If you don’t already have either bind (with caching lookup enabled), nscd, or dnsmasq installed and running on your *nix-based desktop/server, you are probably not caching DNS at all and there is nothing to flush. In that case you will be utilising your DNS server for every web request, probably slowing your web experience.* If so, I recommend at least installing nscd as it is the easiest to set up. **

Flushing nscd’s cache

As with the Mac OS command, this produces absolutely no output unless there is an error:

(|sudo )(|/usr/sbin/)nscd -i hosts
  • Use sudo if you’re not already šaknis otherwise the first selection is blank.
  • Specify /usr/sbin/ if nscd is not already within thepath”. If your distribution has nscd in a strange place, locate it first:
locate -r bin/nscd$

Notice that the abovebin/nscd$is itself a regular expression. 🙂

Using nscd, invalidate thehosts” slėptuvė, logged in as a user:
sudo nscd -i hosts
Using nscd, invalidate thehosts” slėptuvė, logged in as root:
nscd -i hosts
Using nscd, invalidate thehosts” slėptuvė, logged in as root, specifying the full path:
/usr/sbin/nscd -i hosts

Flushing bind’s cache

To flush bind’s cache, we issue a command via rndc. Use sudo if you are not already root:

(|sudo )rndc flush

Restarting the cacheing services also works!

Here’s how to restart either of the caching daemons:

(|sudo )(tarnyba |/etc/(rc\.d|rc\.d/init\.d|init\.d)/)(bind|dnsmasq|nscd) restart

That’s starting to get difficult to read. *** Luckily I’ve explained in detail:

  • As with the previous command, use sudo if you’re not already root.
  • The second selection has the first option “tarnyba “. This applies mainly to Red Hat/CentOS and Fedora systems.
  • The “/etc/(rc\.d|rc\.d/init\.d|init\.d)/” needs to be expanded further. This is for most other systems. Generally, the rc.d is for if you’re using a BSD-style init system (pavyzdžiui: Arch Linux, FreeBSD, or OpenBSD). The best way to know for sure which command to use is to ‘locatethe correct nscd or dnsmasq path. Most Unix flavours, even Solaris, use nscd:
locate -r \.d/nscd$ ; locate -r \.d/dnsmasq$ ; locate -r \.d/rndc$
  • The last choice is betweenbind”, “nscd”, ir “dnsmasq”. This depends entirely on which is installed and in use.
  • The last of the pattern, ” restart”, is the instruction given to the daemon’s control script.

Arka, using dnsmasq, restarting the cache daemon, logged in as root:

/etc/rc.d/dnsmasq restart

Arka, using nscd, restarting the cache daemon, logged in as user:

sudo /etc/rc.d/nscd restart

Centos / Red Hat, using nscd, restarting the daemon, as root:

service nscd restart

nscdrestart

Flush Mozilla Firefox’s internal DNS cache:

Mozilla Firefox keeps its own DNS cache for performance. "Firefox" 2 would cache only 20 entries for up to 60 seconds. The default setting as of Firefox 3 appears to be 512 entries for up to 60 minutes which seems much more reasonable for every-day browsing. If your desktop has a built-in cache (which most now do) then the cache here is actually redundant. I’m not aware of any other browsers that implement DNS caching.

I’ve found a few solutions for when you need to clear the cache. It seems there are many ways to do this however these are the easiest, which I’ve put into order of preference.:

  1. Install the Firefox DNS Flusher Addonprovides a button to flush the cache.
  2. Install the DNS Cache Addonprovides a toggle which disables or enables the DNS cache.
  3. Clear Cache (clears browser cache as well as DNS Cache): Select Tools -> Clear Private Data; Deselect all checkboxes except for Cache; Spragtelėjimas [ Clear Private Data Now ].
  4. Manually do what DNS Cache does: set the following 2 about:config optionsnetwork.dnsCacheExpiration” ir “network.dnsCacheEntries” į 0 and then back to the default.

I had a bad cached record and I cleared my browser’s cache. But its still giving me the wrong info. What gives?

Because of how DNS propagation works, you preferably need to flush the DNS on visi DNS hosts between yourself and theauthoritivehost, starting with the host closest to the authoritive host (furthest away from your browser).

As an example, if you have a router that is caching DNS, reset the router’s cache before restarting the DNS cache of your operating system, and only then should you clear the cache in Firefox. The reason is that even if you only clear your OS and Firefox’s caches, your desktop is still going to ask the router for its bad record anyway.

What if my DNS server is a server on the net outside my control?

You could try temporarily using a different nameserver, possibly even a publicly open serveris. OpenDNS shows some good information on how to do this. If you’d like, you should also be able to get relevant information from your own ISP regarding their resolving DNS servers. A local example (South Africa) is SAIX kurie lists their resolving DNS servers.

* Likely the reason why Firefox has a DNS cache built-in ****
** “((pacman|jogurtas) -S|emerge|(Yum|gabumai|apt-get) install) nscdand then ensure that the service is added to the startup scripts. Refer to your distribution’s installation documentation.
*** I’m looking for a syntax highlighting plugin that can work with regex
**** I’ve read statements that restarting the network(ing|) service also clears the DNS cache however I haven’t seen any evidence that this is true. If anyone has a example where this is true, please provide me with the details.
dalis
Trečiadienis, April 22nd, 2009 | Autorius:

Arka Linux’s installation process is documented on the Arch wiki. I recommend that persons new to Arch try the excellent Beginner’s Guide instead of the Official Arch Linux Install Guide. Though both wiki entries cover similar ground, the Beginner’s Guide gives a lot more relevant information for those new to the system. The Beginner’s Guide is aimed at desktop installation and, as I’m installing a server, I won’t be going through the installation of the graphical environment at all. Assuming that you’re following my installation, assume that I’ve followed the Beginner’s Guide right up to and including the installation of sudo. I installed the ssh daemon afterwards rather than during the initial setup however.

A few small recommendations and notes regarding installation:

  • If you can, consider using a USB memory stick for the installer and keep it handy for future installations.
  • I keep a copy of my local “saugykla” of installed applications on my installer memory stick. Once installation is finished I save a bit of download and update time by copying this to the new server’s /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ folder. The repository on my desktop is typically 1.7GB
  • For the rc.conf, South African-appropriate regional settings are:
    LOCALE=en_ZA.utf8
    TIMEZONE=Africa/Johannesburg
  • I’ve set up the network very simply, according to the guide, and will be expanding on the network setup in a later post.
  • As it is for a server, my non-privileged user on the server is only part of 3 groups: wheel (for sudo), storage, and users. A desktop user will likely be in many more groups.

I prefer using an application called jogurtas instead of Arch’s default package manager. Yaourt has the exact same usage syntax as pacman except that it supports a few extra options. It is actually a wrapper application in that it, in turn, uses pacman. Importantly, yaourt supports installation of applications from Arch’s AUR. The AUR is a repository of installation scripts built by Arch users for Arch users to easily install applications that are not officially supported by the main Arch repositories. Yaourt can download and install applications from AUR or the main repositories with the same command, treating the AUR asjust another repository”. Pacman unfortunately does not support this.

Again, the installation is covered in the wiki. I recommend the easy route mentioned in the wiki if you’re new at Arch. Its too much too soon to do it the hard way (also mentioned in the wiki entry).

When done, update your system by issuing the single command:

yaourt -Syu

OR

pacman -Syu

and follow the given recommendations.

dalis
Trečiadienis, March 25th, 2009 | Autorius:

I finally got Ignite Realtime"S Spark to work. I don’t particularly like Sparkits a necessity though and I’m sure others have had trouble with it.

As some readers might be aware, I’m using 64-bit Arch Linux. Spark runs on top of a JRE, independent of the base platform. Therefore, this shouldn’t be an issue. Tačiau, Spark appears to come bundled with a 32-bit JRE.

After a lot of hassle, I eventually figured all I had to do was obscure or remove (rename or delete) the bundled JRE. This way, Spark’s startup script wouldn’t find the bundled JRE and it would be forced to search for the one built into the system. I had previously installed openjdk, an open source JRE from Arch’s [papildomai] saugykla.

There also happens to be a minor bug in the startup script in that its looking for a folder called “langai” when there’s clearly no such folder except one named “Linux”. Go figure.

Anyway, here’s the gist of the installation if you’re doing it manually on 64bit ir you already have a JRE (such as openjdk) installed for your system:

mkdir -p ~/src
CD ~/src
wget http://download.igniterealtime.org/spark/spark_2_5_8.tar.gz
tar -zxvf spark_2_5_8.tar.gz
mv Spark/jre Spark/jre.not
sed -aš 's/\/lib\/windows/\/lib\/linux/g' Spark/Spark
sudo mkdir -p /opt
sudo mv Spark /opt
dalis