Author Archive

Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Part 1 – Kupu Whakataki – Te whakatu rārangi Simple (Tenei pou)
  • Part 2 – Reliably tāutu i waka – Whakatatūria ake ana Mangle Ture (Haere mai i maoro TM)
  • Part 3 – Kaupapa Motuhake me Tepe – Te whakatu Trees Tūtira (Haere mai i maoro TM)
  • Part 4 – Monitoring Usage – Redefining rārangi – Limiting Abusive Devices (Haere mai i maoro TM)
  • Part 5 – ??? Profit ???

Kupu Whakataki

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Tikanga tangata e mohio he aha, nei, ranei te mea kei te meinga te raruraru – except of course everyone blames the ISP. I te tahi taime te reira i te ISP – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “pae / whare” e whakamahi QoS ki te whakahaere i to ratou hononga Ipurangi. Ko tētahi ko toku wāhi mahi, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – te tikanga noa i te hononga te kāinga, engari i ētahi wā, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-tangata (me te tipu) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS me

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, pērā i DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Untangle, a na atu. Te nuinga o enei te nuinga e rapu e whai koe i te tūmau e manawapa takoto e pā ana ki ranei he pouara pūmārō hototahi. Mikrotik hokona RouterBoards e whai RouterOS builtin – a ko ratou āhua ngāwari.

Toku wheako ki te pouara he matua ki Cisco ko MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with A wehewehea NetEnforcer / NetXplorer pūnaha me MikroTik. Ko te tino rongonui whakaaro MikroTik i roto i toku wheako (i tua atu i to ratou roa-whānui pūrere ahokore i whakatapua) kua ratou rb750 (putanga hou ingoa “hex“) me te rb950-hāngai papa. E ratou maha ētahi atu available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Kua whangai ahau ki te whakaahua whakaaro o MikroTik rite “90% te āhuatanga i 10% te utu”. Ka rite ki hāngai ana tēnei aratohu kei te matua i SME / whakamahi Kāinga, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, mōhio e te mahi MikroTik pouara kore typically include DSL modems, ko te kupu ko te nuinga tonu koutou taputapu ngā tika. Kia mōhio hoki ko tenei kore he akoranga i runga i te whakatakoto ake i te pūrere MikroTik i te wahanga. He nui o nga kaiarahi e wātea ana ipurangi hoki e kua he.

Theory ki mahi – kaupae tuatahi

Hei whakaturia ake QoS tika, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Ko te tere o te tūhononga whānui
  • Hia kaiwhakamahi / e whakaaro mā te whakamahi i te hononga
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Ki te whakatutuki i te i runga ake i roto i toku tauira, Ka amo ahau te whai ake:

  • Whakaturia te MikroTik ake ki te whirihoranga whatunga taunoa te wahi i te whatunga rohe ko 192.168.88.0/24 ka whakaratohia te hononga Ipurangi kei mā KPPiI.
  • Ko te tere hononga ko 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mpiah tere download; 2 Mpiah tere tukuake)
  • He ka 5 kaiwhakamahi ki te hunga i rite 15 pūrere (rorohiko maha / papa / waea pūkoro / WiFi aha)
  • Tikiake angamaheni rapua e tiketike matua ki te puta engari iti-matua ki te torohūtanga
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • No kaiwhakamahi e ki kia matua i runga i ētahi atu

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Tūtira Simple.

Kua hanga e ahau he hōtuhi poto e kua ora ahau i runga i toku whakaaro MikroTik ki te whakaturia ake nga rārangi māmā. Ko reira e whai ake:

:no te x i 1 ki 254 ta koutou e mea ={
 /tūtira ingoa tāpiri ohie ="ipurangi-usage- $ x" dst ="KPPiI" max-rohe = 1900k / 9500k ūnga ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Ko e hā te runga e rohe ki te tere mōrahi e taea e tetahi pūrere takitahi whakamahi ki “1900k” (1.9Mb) tukuatu a “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Tuhipoka:

  • Ko te take he aha e nga rohe max i 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. No te tauira, ki te 100 kaiwhakamahi ai whakaturia i runga i te ratonga 20MP ahau tenei rohe ki 15Mb ranei ara rite iti rite 1Mb. Ko te ti'aturi i runga pehea tenei “taunu” nga kaiwhakamahi e me, rite feruri e koe i roto i te wahi a pēhea te puta nui tūkino, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Ko te kuhimua “ipurangi-whakamahinga” i roto i te tawhā ingoa taea te whakarite. Tikanga whakaturia e ahau enei ki tirohia ki te ingoa whare. No te tauira, with premises named “ārepa” me te “peta”, Te tikanga ka hoatu e ahau “ipurangi-Arepa” me te “ipurangi-peta”. E āwhina ana tēnei ki maoritia ana differentiating i waenganui i ngā pae.
  • Ko te tawhā dst nei “KPPiI” i roto i te tauira. Kia whakakapia ki te ingoa o te tenei atanga that provides the Internet connection.

Me whakarite whakarite koe i te hōtuhi kia kia tika ki tou whirihoranga. Whakaorangia te hōtuhi ki te MikroTik me rere i te reira – whakapiri tika ranei te reira ki kāpeka o te MikroTik ki te mahia te reira.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle ture. Mahi ēnei ture ki te tautuhi i / whakarōpū i te waka whatunga roto i te tikanga ki te hanga QoS kaitahi-baked taea.

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Category: tupurangi  | Waiho a Comment
Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:

Tūmataitinga, Wā, Money

E kore ahau e rite whakahau nama. E kore kua ahau pai te whakaaro e taea e tetahi hinonga, i hinaaro, tango tata tetahi nui o toku moni (pai … te wātea mea katoa). Tuhu atu te hoa i te take ki MTN e kua karohia ua te whakamahi ahau i te tikanga nama. Pea te “haratau” e kore ko te taua mea kino tauwehe.

Whakaaro ahau te pātai penultimate konei he ahakoa e kore ranei e hiahia ana koe te haratau me te taea whakawhirinaki pūtahi (i roto i tenei take ki to koutou moni) – ranei, ki te kore e taea e koe te whakawhirinaki ratou, a he pai ki te Dante haratau. I roto i toku take, ahakoa ui tonu ahau i te haratau, Ua haapii ahau te ara pakeke ki MTN e te reira mea huakore, e taea e whakararuraru ki te whai iti tou ao tūhono ki “motu mamao” tūnga. Tata katoa i tenei ra haere ki te tauwehe haratau.

Haratau

I te tahi atu i te ringa, i teie nei i te wa roa i mua, I had a dispute with Planet Fitness te wahi i haratau he hoari matarua. Korerotia e ahau to ratou mahi pakihi ki te Komihana amuamu Consumer (mai anō-faanahonahohia rite te National Kiritaki Komihana) and never got feedback from them. The gist of the issue is that Planet Fitness’s sales agent lied to me and a friend in order to get more commission/money out of my pocket.

Ahau i te Discovery Rikarika mema e homai maha painga, tae atu ki ngā reiti iti i runga i rama Premium – pānga ki te hauora o te akoranga te nuinga, as Discovery is a Medical Aid/Health Insurance provider. Hei hoatu i te reira noa, Ko whakamataku Discovery. Hua o te Rikarika hipokina mematanga omaoma nei atu ngā Planet Fitness. You still have to pay something, he tohu iti o te tini, ki Discovery, mo te mema omaoma. Ko, muri katoa, FIE ratou ki ahau kia hauora, so they don’t mind footing the bulk of the bill. Ko, āhua, tenei te tikanga Planet Fitness’ e kore e āpiha hoko whiwhi i te kōmihana!

Na he aha e tenei hua i roto i? Ko te hua, ko e hoatu hoko kaihoko o PF he ahua teeraa ahau mo te “E hāngai ana te ora-” mema. Teka ia. Ia ka i haina ahau i runga i te rārangi iraira mō te utu teeraa i te “auau” mema (ae, mau atu i te ara e whai i te mema auau utu ko reira), ending up about 4 me te 5 wa rite nui rite te mema e hāngai ana Rikarika-.

Epiphanies

Some time in 2011 Ahau te mutunga wisened ake ki te utu i mahara ahau ki te kia te aufauraa i. Discovery e mohio ana ahau e kore e hari rawa e pā ana ki tenei te tokomaha. Korero ahau ki te Kaiwhakahaere i te omaoma, a ka fakapapau'i ahau e pai te kirimana katoa e whakakorehia. E kore ahau tetahi mo te tutu … te kore ona hākinakina hoki … i roto i te Tapawaru … engari i muri i toku tere 5 ki te Kaiwhakahaere, ki te ui aha i tonu tupu te ota Taipitopito, ka korerotia e ia ki ahau i miharo ia kihai i kawea mai e ahau patu ki ahau mo te tere. I muri atu i te tahi mau hahaereraa, mau te Kaiwhakahaere i mahue Planet Fitness, a faataa ki ahau e te “kirimana” was between myself and Head Office and that the local gym, āhua i te mahi karapu-kāhua, i iti ki kahore te mea na e pā ana ki ahakoa kahore ranei i taea te whakakore te reira. Ki te mea Office Head kahore, waimarie uaua.

By this point I’d lost it. I had my bank put a mutu ki nga whakahau nama. It was a huge schlep: I had to contact the bank every month because the debit order descriptions would change ever so slightly. It also cost me a little every couple of months to “faaho'i mai i” the blocking mahi. E kore e taea e ahau te tauturu engari whakaaro tautoko te pūnaha pēke kīanga wā otiia e kore e tika mohio nga kaimahi ki te whakamahi i te reira.

Technically I’m still waiting on the CCC to get back to me (e kore tupu – a o te akoranga anō-faanahonahohia i rite ratou ki whakahuatia i runga ake na pea hinga te take i roto i nga kapiti). O te akoranga, e taua wāhi hiahia hoki PF ki blacklist ahau hoki kahore te aufauraa i!

Ko te Hero ohorere

He whakahua kōpeka o te take ki Discovery (Whakaaro ahau huaina ratou e ahau e pā ana ki te toronga niho) hua i roto i te hokiwaea i tetahi o nga āpiha o Discovery. Na ka ui ratou ki ahau ki te whakaahua i te raruraru, i roto i ngā, i roto i te tuhituhi, ki te pai te whakamārama i toku tirohanga i tupu te aha tino. Titauhia ahau. Huri i te reira i roto i ko ahau tika e pā ana ki a ratou e kore e te “oaoa rawa” e pā ana ki te reira. I roto i te meka ratou tino kihai i rite te reira. About three weeks later, Planet Fitness Ka whakahokia ahau i roto i KAKATO mō moni katoa i ake kua utua ki a ratou.

Ko Awesome Discovery. 🙂

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Rātapu, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

I ahau i te hiko pā o nui toku tūmau MD RAID ngohi. Pai atu i te kia te tūmau me te mea he katoa e ki raro i te tatari hoki ki reira te whakaoti i te fsck, I ahau mea whawhai ki waho o te ngohi nui kia taea e ahau te rere ā-ringa i te fsck.

Heoi, ka rere ā-ringa i te reira kite ahau i ahau kahore ara o te mohio pehea te tawhiti i me pehea te roa e tango i te reira ki te whakaoti. Ko rawa raruraru ki te taua ngohi nui tenei. Ki te rapu iti kitea e ahau i te pito o te tāpiri i te C-tawhā ka karanga fsck. Kihai i kitea e ahau i tenei i roto i te tuhinga Heoi: fsck –whakakitea āwhina kahore kōwhiringa taua.

Tahuri i te kōwhiringa ki te e ext4-motuhake, me te kupu whakaatu he bar i te ahunga whakamua maitai mahi ki te tohu ōrau. Ki te kitea te mōhiohio, hei utu mo “fsck –te tauturu ia” ranei “te tangata fsck”, whai koe ki te whai wāhi “fsck.ext4 –te tauturu ia” ranei “te tangata fsck.ext4”. 🙂

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Rātapu, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

History

I puta ke te nuinga mai i whakahuatia whakamutunga e ahau toku tūmau whaiaro – kua tupu te reira e te amuamu me te rohe (te reira i teie nei, he 7TB MD RAID6) a kua tata kua hanga e ia ki te Ubuntu Tūmau.

Arch Ko kore he hape. Kua whakaako Arch Linux i ahau kia nui e pā ana ki Linux (a ka ki te rave i te reira i runga i era atu toku papamahi tonu). Ko Arch tino me ake te wā, me te aro atu e hiahia ana ahau ki te whakapau i runga i te tūmau. I pā atu te hinaaro hiahia ahau ki te e taea ki te wareware mō te tūmau hoki i te wā e tae noa ki ta te īmēra whakamaumahara “a … i reira te he hono i ngā whakahōunga kia titiro koutou i, hoa.”

E kore he utu Space – a e kore he wāhi

Ko te whai wāhi ki te heke ki a Ubuntu ko te meka i rere ahau i roto i SATA tauranga, te tauranga i hiahiatia ki te hono puku pakeke ki te toenga o te rorohiko – ka whakamahi i taua ngohi 7TB RAID te rota o te tauranga! I ara hoatu e ahau atu toku rawa koroheke 200GB kōpae mārō rite ka mau ake tetahi o aua tauranga. Ahau ano hoki faaara te kaiwhiwhi e te kōpae o SMART tohu te aroturuki i hārakiraki. Ka rite ki te kimi rangitahi ki te kore o SATA tauranga, I ara heke ahau OS te tūmau a ki te huinga o te wha USB rakau i roto i te MD RAID1. Haurangi. E mohio ana ahau ki. Kihai ahau i hari rawa e pā ana ki te tere. Faaoti e ahau ki te haere i roto i te hoko i te te puku hou tōtika pakeke me te kāri roha SATA ki te haere ki reira.

I te whakamahi i tataitia Arch tuatahi o te tūmau e pā ana ki 7GB o kōpae. He wāhi nui o taua ko te Whakawhitia kōnae, raraunga keteroki me te rere ngā kōnae momo kē hiahiatia ranei. Whānui i te rahi tūturu o te OS, tae atu ki te /te kāinga kōpaki, Ko anake e pā ana ki te 2KKP. Tenei tonu i kipa ahau ki te titiro ki te super-nohopuku SSD te puku, whakaaro pea a tetahi iti e kore ai e pera te utu. Tahuri te reira i roto i te puku e te na'ina'i kore-SSD i kitea e ahau mau utu atu atu i te kotahi o enei SSDs ähua iti. Yay hoki ahau. 🙂

Kōwhiringa? Woah?!

I roto i te kōwhiri i te OS, Hiahia kē ahau whakatau e kore e waiho te reira Arch. I roto i te atu tuwha rongonui katoa, Oku tino waia ki a Ubuntu ahau me te CentOS. Fedora Ko ano a taea – engari e kore ahau i tino ano whakaaro reira hoki te tūmau. Riro Ubuntu te a tawhio noa.

Te whakatau i muri i ahau ki te hanga kihai i puta ki ahau a taea noatia Ubiquity (Ruānuku tāutanga o Ubuntu) ka ui te reira o te ahau: Pehea ki te whakaturia ake i te wawahitanga.

I hou ki te whakamahi i SSDs i Linux ahau – Ahau pai mohio o te mau herepata o te kore te whakamahi i tika a ratou, te nuinga e tika ana ki to ratou tūpono o te pikinga o rawakore ki te tukinotia.

E kore ahau i hiahia ki te whakamahi i te arai Whakawhitinga oti te whakatapu. Whakamahere e ahau i runga i whakahou kaupapa / PTM / mahara te tūmau a kahore i tawhiti rawa i roto i te heke mai. I runga i taua faaoti e ahau, ka hoatu e ahau ki roto ki Huri te kōnae Whakawhitinga i runga i te RAID MD ngā. E kore e te Whakawhitinga e ngā nohopuku engari tona whakaaro anake ka waiho hoki i taua taime onge, no ka riro i te tahi mea ngā he, me te kore e wātea ana i te mahara.

Na ka whakarerea e ahau tenei ki te hoatu i te ara pakiaka te 60GB ki tonu i roto i o te Intel 330 SSD. Whakaaro ahau mawehe / te kāinga engari reira whakaaro tika, he kikokore iti, homai te iti i whakamahia i roto i te mua. Ahau tuatahi whakaturia ake te arai ki te LVM – te tahi mea kua tata ahau i mahi ina whakaturia e ahau ki runga i te pouaka Linux (tino, i reira te kahore he kupu whakahoki kahore ki te whakamahi i LVM). A, no te ka te reira ki te wahi i te wahi e whirihora e ahau te Pūnahakōnae, Pāwhiritia ahau te taka-iho me te hinengaro, i kōwhiria ext4. Na ka kite ahau i roto i te rārangi btrfs taua. Whakairi ki runga ki!!

Ko te aha?

Btrfs (“pata-eff-ess”, “pai-eff-ess”, “pi-rakau-eff-ess”, nga mea katoa Tena koe ranei i runga i te ra) Kua whakawhanakehia he Pūnahakōnae āhua hou i roto i kia kawea Linux’ kaha hoki Pūnahakōnae i runga i te ara ki te hangarau Pūnahakōnae o nāianei. Ko te Pūnahakōnae Kingi-o-te-Hill ngā, “ext” (te putanga o nāianei i huaina ext4) he tino pai – engari he iti, mau i roto i te tauira tawhito (whakaaro o te waitohu hou F22 Raptor vs. he K4 Phantom ki te hawhe-hunaonga i ngana i te whakamohoa equivalency) me he pea ki te e taea ki te whakataetae mo te tino roa ki hōu filesystems Enterprise pērā i A ahurewa ZFS. Tonu he huarahi roa ki te haere Btrfs me te whakaaro tonu whakamātau (i runga i te hunga e ui ki a koutou, me te mea ngā āhuatanga e hiahia ana koe kei). He tokomaha whakaaro ki reira hei kainga mo te whakamahi taketake – engari te tangata e haere ana ki te hanga tetahi ki pāmamao. A, o te akoranga, katoa kei te mea ki te hanga me te pūrua whakamātautau!

Mooooooo

Ko te rerekëtanga tino taketake waenganui i ext me btrfs ko e btrfs ko te “Kau” ranei “Tāruatia ki Tuhia” Pūnahakōnae. Tenei te tikanga e raraunga kua kore tino āta tuhia e te internals o te Pūnahakōnae. Ki te tuhituhi koe i te huringa ki te kōnae, ka tuhituhi a koutou huringa btrfs ki te wāhi hou i runga i pāpāho tinana, a ka whakahou i te atatohu ā-ki te tirohia ki te tauwāhi hōu. Btrfs haere te mahi anō i roto i taua hunga atatohu ā- (tukua ki te rite ki metadata) He hoki Kau. Ngā putanga tawhito o ext e kua tuhia noa te raraunga. E whakamahi Ext4 he Journal ki te whakarite e kore e pirau e puta kia yanked te plug AC i roto i te taime i te nuinga kāore i. Ngā hua o te hautaka i roto i te maha rite o nga kaupae e hiahiatia ana ki te whakahōu i ngā raraunga. Ki te SSD, te taputapu waiwai mahi he tukanga kau ōrite kore mea aha Pūnahakōnae e whakamahi ana koe. Ko te kupu tenei i te mea e kore e taea e ngā puku SSD tuhirua rawa raraunga – ratou ki te tārua i te raraunga (ki o koutou huringa) ki te wāhi hou me ka ūkui anake te poraka tawhito. He arotautanga i roto i tenei rohe ko e kore ai he SSD ara te ūkui i te poraka tawhito engari kia noa te nota ki te ūkui i te poraka i te wa i muri mai, no te kore e pera pukumahi mea. Ko te hua mutunga ko e uru rawa te pai puku SSD ki te Pūnahakōnae kau, me te kore e rite ki te mahi pai ki te filesystems kau-kore.

Ki te hanga mea whai, Kau i roto i te Pūnahakōnae haere ngāwari ringa i roto i te ringa ki te āhuatanga i huaina deduplication. Tenei ka taea e rua (neke atu rānei) ōrite poraka o ngā raraunga ki te penapena mā te whakamahi i te anake tētahi tārua kotahi, te tiaki wāhi. Ki te kau, ki te whakarerekētia te kōnae deduplicated te, e kore e pāngia i te māhanga motuhake rite e raraunga i te kōnae whakarerekētia a kua tuhituhia kua ki i te poraka rerekē tinana.

Kau i roto i tahuri hanga snapshotting ngāwari ngā ki te whakatinana i. I te hanga he hopuāhua te tuhi noa i te pūnaha te whakaahua hou rite he tāruarua o ngā raraunga katoa me metadata i roto i te rōrahi. Ki te kau, ka hanga e huringa, noho te tum raraunga o te whakaahua, a taea tonu he tirotiro rite o te mana o te Pūnahakōnae i te wa i hanga i te whakaahua i.

A hoa hou

Ki te runga ake i roto i te hinengaro, rawa rite hanga Ubuntu kua btrfs wātea hei kōwhiringa tāuta-wā, Te take e waiho hei wa pai ki te ruku ki btrfs me te tūhura i te iti. 🙂

Part 2 e haere mai ana, no te …

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Monday, October 29, 2012 | Author:

Puta i te reira e, i roto i te whakaaro nui mure ore, Google he āhuatanga haumaru e taea e te ārai i te tono i te whakauru ki te whakamahi ranei i tō pūkete google. Ka taea e kite ahau i pehea ai e he raruraru tenei mo ngā kaiwhakamahi o Google, i roto i ngā ratou GTalk me te Gmail kaiwhakamahi. I roto i taku take, ko reira Häunga te mea he take ki te Jabber mahi (i te mea tū wahi o GTalk). Kitea e ahau i te otinga i muri i te iti keri. I maere e ahau i pehea tau o te take, me pehea te roa, kua vai tēnei āhuatanga!

Ki te iriti i te aamu, a te tiki i tō tono ipurangi, whakamahi Captcha te whārangi o Google konei.

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