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Rātapu, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

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I puta ke te nuinga mai i whakahuatia whakamutunga e ahau toku tūmau whaiaro – kua tupu te reira e te amuamu me te rohe (te reira i teie nei, he 7TB MD RAID6) a kua tata kua hanga e ia ki te Ubuntu Tūmau.

Arch Ko kore he hape. Kua whakaako Arch Linux i ahau kia nui e pā ana ki Linux (a ka ki te rave i te reira i runga i era atu toku papamahi tonu). Ko Arch tino me ake te wā, me te aro atu e hiahia ana ahau ki te whakapau i runga i te tūmau. I pā atu te hinaaro hiahia ahau ki te e taea ki te wareware mō te tūmau hoki i te wā e tae noa ki ta te īmēra whakamaumahara “a … i reira te he hono i ngā whakahōunga kia titiro koutou i, hoa.”

E kore he utu Space – a e kore he wāhi

Ko te whai wāhi ki te heke ki a Ubuntu ko te meka i rere ahau i roto i SATA tauranga, te tauranga i hiahiatia ki te hono puku pakeke ki te toenga o te rorohiko – ka whakamahi i taua ngohi 7TB RAID te rota o te tauranga! I ara hoatu e ahau atu toku rawa koroheke 200GB kōpae mārō rite ka mau ake tetahi o aua tauranga. Ahau ano hoki faaara te kaiwhiwhi e te kōpae o SMART tohu te aroturuki i hārakiraki. Ka rite ki te kimi rangitahi ki te kore o SATA tauranga, I ara heke ahau OS te tūmau a ki te huinga o te wha USB rakau i roto i te MD RAID1. Haurangi. E mohio ana ahau ki. Kihai ahau i hari rawa e pā ana ki te tere. Faaoti e ahau ki te haere i roto i te hoko i te te puku hou tōtika pakeke me te kāri roha SATA ki te haere ki reira.

I te whakamahi i tataitia Arch tuatahi o te tūmau e pā ana ki 7GB o kōpae. He wāhi nui o taua ko te Whakawhitia kōnae, raraunga keteroki me te rere ngā kōnae momo kē hiahiatia ranei. Whānui i te rahi tūturu o te OS, tae atu ki te /te kāinga kōpaki, Ko anake e pā ana ki te 2KKP. Tenei tonu i kipa ahau ki te titiro ki te super-nohopuku SSD te puku, whakaaro pea a tetahi iti e kore ai e pera te utu. Tahuri te reira i roto i te puku e te na'ina'i kore-SSD i kitea e ahau mau utu atu atu i te kotahi o enei SSDs ähua iti. Yay hoki ahau. 🙂

Kōwhiringa? Woah?!

I roto i te kōwhiri i te OS, Hiahia kē ahau whakatau e kore e waiho te reira Arch. I roto i te atu tuwha rongonui katoa, Oku tino waia ki a Ubuntu ahau me te CentOS. Fedora Ko ano a taea – engari e kore ahau i tino ano whakaaro reira hoki te tūmau. Riro Ubuntu te a tawhio noa.

Te whakatau i muri i ahau ki te hanga kihai i puta ki ahau a taea noatia Ubiquity (Ruānuku tāutanga o Ubuntu) ka ui te reira o te ahau: Pehea ki te whakaturia ake i te wawahitanga.

I hou ki te whakamahi i SSDs i Linux ahau – Ahau pai mohio o te mau herepata o te kore te whakamahi i tika a ratou, te nuinga e tika ana ki to ratou tūpono o te pikinga o rawakore ki te tukinotia.

E kore ahau i hiahia ki te whakamahi i te arai Whakawhitinga oti te whakatapu. Whakamahere e ahau i runga i whakahou kaupapa / PTM / mahara te tūmau a kahore i tawhiti rawa i roto i te heke mai. I runga i taua faaoti e ahau, ka hoatu e ahau ki roto ki Huri te kōnae Whakawhitinga i runga i te RAID MD ngā. E kore e te Whakawhitinga e ngā nohopuku engari tona whakaaro anake ka waiho hoki i taua taime onge, no ka riro i te tahi mea ngā he, me te kore e wātea ana i te mahara.

Na ka whakarerea e ahau tenei ki te hoatu i te ara pakiaka te 60GB ki tonu i roto i o te Intel 330 SSD. Whakaaro ahau mawehe / te kāinga engari reira whakaaro tika, he kikokore iti, homai te iti i whakamahia i roto i te mua. Ahau tuatahi whakaturia ake te arai ki te LVM – te tahi mea kua tata ahau i mahi ina whakaturia e ahau ki runga i te pouaka Linux (tino, i reira te kahore he kupu whakahoki kahore ki te whakamahi i LVM). A, no te ka te reira ki te wahi i te wahi e whirihora e ahau te Pūnahakōnae, Pāwhiritia ahau te taka-iho me te hinengaro, i kōwhiria ext4. Na ka kite ahau i roto i te rārangi btrfs taua. Whakairi ki runga ki!!

Ko te aha?

Btrfs (“pata-eff-ess”, “pai-eff-ess”, “pi-rakau-eff-ess”, nga mea katoa Tena koe ranei i runga i te ra) Kua whakawhanakehia he Pūnahakōnae āhua hou i roto i kia kawea Linux’ kaha hoki Pūnahakōnae i runga i te ara ki te hangarau Pūnahakōnae o nāianei. Ko te Pūnahakōnae Kingi-o-te-Hill ngā, “ext” (te putanga o nāianei i huaina ext4) he tino pai – engari he iti, mau i roto i te tauira tawhito (whakaaro o te waitohu hou F22 Raptor vs. he K4 Phantom ki te hawhe-hunaonga i ngana i te whakamohoa equivalency) me he pea ki te e taea ki te whakataetae mo te tino roa ki hōu filesystems Enterprise pērā i A ahurewa ZFS. Tonu he huarahi roa ki te haere Btrfs me te whakaaro tonu whakamātau (i runga i te hunga e ui ki a koutou, me te mea ngā āhuatanga e hiahia ana koe kei). He tokomaha whakaaro ki reira hei kainga mo te whakamahi taketake – engari te tangata e haere ana ki te hanga tetahi ki pāmamao. A, o te akoranga, katoa kei te mea ki te hanga me te pūrua whakamātautau!

Mooooooo

Ko te rerekëtanga tino taketake waenganui i ext me btrfs ko e btrfs ko te “Kau” ranei “Tāruatia ki Tuhia” Pūnahakōnae. Tenei te tikanga e raraunga kua kore tino āta tuhia e te internals o te Pūnahakōnae. Ki te tuhituhi koe i te huringa ki te kōnae, ka tuhituhi a koutou huringa btrfs ki te wāhi hou i runga i pāpāho tinana, a ka whakahou i te atatohu ā-ki te tirohia ki te tauwāhi hōu. Btrfs haere te mahi anō i roto i taua hunga atatohu ā- (tukua ki te rite ki metadata) He hoki Kau. Ngā putanga tawhito o ext e kua tuhia noa te raraunga. E whakamahi Ext4 he Journal ki te whakarite e kore e pirau e puta kia yanked te plug AC i roto i te taime i te nuinga kāore i. Ngā hua o te hautaka i roto i te maha rite o nga kaupae e hiahiatia ana ki te whakahōu i ngā raraunga. Ki te SSD, te taputapu waiwai mahi he tukanga kau ōrite kore mea aha Pūnahakōnae e whakamahi ana koe. Ko te kupu tenei i te mea e kore e taea e ngā puku SSD tuhirua rawa raraunga – ratou ki te tārua i te raraunga (ki o koutou huringa) ki te wāhi hou me ka ūkui anake te poraka tawhito. He arotautanga i roto i tenei rohe ko e kore ai he SSD ara te ūkui i te poraka tawhito engari kia noa te nota ki te ūkui i te poraka i te wa i muri mai, no te kore e pera pukumahi mea. Ko te hua mutunga ko e uru rawa te pai puku SSD ki te Pūnahakōnae kau, me te kore e rite ki te mahi pai ki te filesystems kau-kore.

Ki te hanga mea whai, Kau i roto i te Pūnahakōnae haere ngāwari ringa i roto i te ringa ki te āhuatanga i huaina deduplication. Tenei ka taea e rua (neke atu rānei) ōrite poraka o ngā raraunga ki te penapena mā te whakamahi i te anake tētahi tārua kotahi, te tiaki wāhi. Ki te kau, ki te whakarerekētia te kōnae deduplicated te, e kore e pāngia i te māhanga motuhake rite e raraunga i te kōnae whakarerekētia a kua tuhituhia kua ki i te poraka rerekē tinana.

Kau i roto i tahuri hanga snapshotting ngāwari ngā ki te whakatinana i. I te hanga he hopuāhua te tuhi noa i te pūnaha te whakaahua hou rite he tāruarua o ngā raraunga katoa me metadata i roto i te rōrahi. Ki te kau, ka hanga e huringa, noho te tum raraunga o te whakaahua, a taea tonu he tirotiro rite o te mana o te Pūnahakōnae i te wa i hanga i te whakaahua i.

A hoa hou

Ki te runga ake i roto i te hinengaro, rawa rite hanga Ubuntu kua btrfs wātea hei kōwhiringa tāuta-wā, Te take e waiho hei wa pai ki te ruku ki btrfs me te tūhura i te iti. 🙂

Part 2 e haere mai ana, no te …

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Thursday, January 01st, 2009 | Author:

Apparently, what operating system you use can say a lot about you. If you’re using some form of *nix, which distro you’re using can say a lot as well. Redundancy aside, I believe that a Linux distribution depends absolutely on its package management and distribution system.

I liked apt-get (1, 2) but there was some technical problem at some point and it caused me to use aptitude instead. Using aptitude is slightly easierit has more features automated into single, logical, commands where apt-get requires separate commands. Aptitude also has a curses-based GUI. If you’re not using the GUI then, other than brevity in terms of number of commands to learn, there is apparently no technical reason to prefer one over the other. Aptitude and apt-get serve K/X/Ubuntu me te Debian pai. From this point, I use the names Kubuntu and Ubuntu in a loosely interchangeable fashion.

In my use of CentOS (based on Red Hat), I’ve found I like yum. It seems to work in much the same as aptitudeone command to rule them all. It has some rather annoying default behaviour I’m not going to get into here as its most likely because I’m just not used to it. At least from a technical perspective, it is very good. I believe that Fedora also makes use of yum though my experience with Fedora is very limited.

the theory

Fedora and Ubuntu are in a class of distributions that have a fairly rigorous release cycle. Ubuntu 8.10 (the version is named so for the year and month of its release) e kore, except for major bugs and minor changes, have another major update until the next version, Jaunty Jackalope. Ubuntu users have the latest versions of most software on their desktops right now. In the months preceding the next release, however, they’re not going to be so lucky unless they like using “peta” releases. As I’m not very familiar with Fedora, I’m not going to bother going into its release cycle.

These 2 distributions are also within a class of distributions known asbinary” ranei “binary-baseddistributions. This means that when you download an update, the files that are downloaded are precompiled and should run on anysupportedhardware. This isn’t specifically optimised for your desktop’s hardware, for example, your processor. Perhaps you have an AMD processor which has extra instruction support which Intel CPUs do not have. The reverse could also be true. For this reason, a binary-release distribution cannot optimise for one particular brand of hardware. Regardless of thisnon-optimisation”, it should run at a decent pace.

the practice!

Mō 2 years ago I started using Kubuntu. After a few months of working with it, I started to learn more about its specifics. I’m not much of a fan of using GUI tools to update the system when, ultimately, its all happening on the command-line anyway. The GUI tools just hide the complexity I don’t mind seeing.

I ended up making a bash hōtuhi, update, which would run all the steps required to get aptitude to just go ahead and upgrade already, kthx?©, perhaps stopping along the way to back up my configuration, remount the NFS network share where we keep an on-site repository, back up the local cache of aptitude’s installed packages, do some folder-link shuffling to use a local copy if the network share couldn’t remount, sync between the local copy and the network share if the previous update had a network share issue, and update lists of packages in the repository. In general, it wouldn’t go ahead if there were any errors though, as you can tell, this script became a messy beast that went above and beyond the original requirements. It worked well for me.

Until the day came to update between Kubuntu 6.10 ki 7.04. I did this manually though, not with the script.

I ended up reinstalling from scratch as a result of the mess that ensued. At least, as a backup administrator should do well to demonstrate, it was easy to recover everything I really needed. 🙂

What else is out there?

Even before I had to reinstall Kubuntu, I was introduced to another distribution called Gentoo. There are 2 very distinct differences between Gentoo and Ubuntu’s update system. The first is that Gentoo is a source-based distribution. This means that when you update a package, the package manager downloads the source and compiles everything, hopefully optimising it for your system. This, I think, is very cool. The downside to this is that compiling everything takes a very long time.

Here are my (very unscientific) estimates for the length of time it takes to install a basic GUI OS to a desktop from installation media, excluding extraneous drivers (for example, the latest 3D graphics drivers):

OS: minmax (median)

Windows Vista: 15 – 30 (20) minutes

Ubuntu: 15 – 40 (20) minutes

Gentoo: 3 – 40 (6) hours

Gentoo also requires much tinkering with the config files in order to get things workingthis is another reason for the extremely long delay between inserting the CD and booting your awesome* new desktop. Popular applications have binary packages available for downloadthough this isn’t a default option.

They see me rollin

There is one more very important distinction Gentoo has from most other distributions. It is arolling-releasedistribution. This means that there isn’t any rigorous version orreleasethat the distribution adheres to. If you install Gentoo todayif you finish installing Gentoo today, you’re probably going to have the latest version of all the applications you installed. If some obscure application gets a major update tomorrow, within a few days, if you update your system, you’re going to have that latest version on your desktop.

The difference between this rolling release and theotherdistributions is rather staggering. No te tauira: If KDE 4.2 were to be released tomorrow, you’d probably have to wait less than 2 weeks for it to be available on Gentoo. Ubuntu users might have to wait till 9.04 – that’s a 4-month wait.

Something more suitable?

Personally, I’m not willing to put in the 40 hours of effort to get my system working the way I want it to. My colleague had to reinstall recently for some obscure reason and it turns out he wasn’t willing to put in the 6 hours (he’s more experienced with Gentoo) of effort to get his system back to how it was running either. Instead, Arch Linux caught his eye. Arch Linux is a rolling-release (like Gentoo), binary-based (like Ubuntu) distribution. Its packages (pai, the vast majority of them) don’t need much tinkering with their config files to get things working nicely either. Its the best of both worlds!

You still need to know what you’re doing* but if you’ve come to this juncture, it shouldn’t be such a giant leap of faith. Arch Linux’s package manager, called pactangata, has built-in dependency and conflict handling. I use another package manager, miraka pē (French for yoghurt), which has very quickly become popular with Arch users. Yaourt enhances the functionality of pacman by allowing you to download and install applications directly from the AUR, ranei Arch User Repository. This repository contains scripts that allow you to automatically download and install many applications that would otherwise be completely unsupported by Arch’s own core developers. It downloads and compiles the package into a chroot’d environment. It then packages the chroot’d environment into a pacman-compatible package tarball and uses pacman to deploy it into your system.

hoki, the AUR supports a voting system whereby popular packages get placed into the more official [community] repository. Yaourt also supports an automated voting mechanism whereby, after installing a package via AUR, it asks if you want to vote for its inclusion in [community].

I estimate that the time taken for my Arch installation was about 90 minutes. I don’t recommend Archlinux for newbies though I do recommend it for any Linux user who’s gotten bored with other distrosand wants to get into the nitty gritty without having to install Linux From Scratch. Arch Linux has been getting pretty popular these days. Its currently at number 14 i runga i Distrowatch.

* IF you know what you’re doing. AND YOU BETTER BLOODY KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DOING!
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