Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Parti 1 – Introduzzjoni – It-twaqqif ta Kjuwijiet sempliċi (Din il-kariga)
  • Parti 2 – Affidabbli identifikazzjoni traffiku – It-twaqqif ta Mangle Regoli (Dalwaqt TM)
  • Parti 3 – Prijoritajiet u Limiti – It-twaqqif ta Siġar kju (Dalwaqt TM)
  • Parti 4 – Monitoring Usage – Definizzjoni mill-ġdid Kjuwijiet – Limiting Abusive Devices (Dalwaqt TM)
  • Parti 5 – ??? Qligħ ???

Introduzzjoni

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Tipikament ħadd ma jaf għaliex, li, jew dak li qiegħed jikkawża l-problema – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Xi kultant huwa l-ISP – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “siti / bini” li l-użu QoS biex jimmaniġġjaw konnettività Internet tagħhom. Wieħed huwa post tax-xogħol tiegħi, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – normalment ftit konnessjoni dar imma alternattivament, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-bniedem (u li qed jikber) LAN. Pjaċir. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS u

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, bħal JJ-WRT, Smoothwall, Untangle, u oħrajn. Ħafna minn dawn tipikament jeħtieġu li inti għandek server żejda tinsab dwar jew router hardware kompatibbli. Mikrotik tbiegħ RouterBoards li għandhom RouterOS builtin – u dawn huma relattivament irħas.

L-esperjenza tiegħi mal routers hija primarjament ma ' Cisco u MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Allok ta NetEnforcer / NetXplorer sistemi u MikroTik. Il-mezzi MikroTik aktar popolari fl-esperjenza tiegħi (minbarra fuq medda twila tagħmir bla wajers tagħhom dedikati) Kien tagħhom rb750 (verżjoni l-ġdida bl-isem “HEX“) u rb950-bordijiet bbażati. Huma għandhom ħafna oħrajn available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Stajt tendenza li jiddeskrivu mezzi MikroTik bħala “90% il-karatteristiċi fil 10% l-ispiża”. Peress li din il-gwida hija mmirata primarjament lejn l-SMEs / użu Home, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, jinnota li routers MikroTik tagħmel mhux typically include DSL modems, b'hekk tagħmir eżistenti tiegħek hija tipikament għadu meħtieġ. Innota wkoll li dan huwa mhux tutorja dwar it-twaqqif ta 'apparat MikroTik mill-bidu. Hemm ħafna ta 'gwidi disponibbli online għal dik diġà.

Teorija fil-prattika – ewwel passi

It-twaqqif QoS korrett, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Il-veloċità ġenerali konnessjoni
  • Kemm utenti / apparati se tuża l-konnessjoni
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Biex jinkiseb dan t'hawn fuq fil eżempji tiegħi, I se tassumi li ġej:

  • Il MikroTik huwa stabbilit bl-konfigurazzjoni default network fejn in-netwerk lokali 192.168.88.0/24 u l-konnessjoni Internet huwa pprovdut permezz PPPoE.
  • Il-veloċità konnessjoni hija 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps veloċità download; 2 Mbps veloċità upload)
  • Se jkun hemm 5 utenti daqs 15 apparati (kompjuters multipli / pilloli / mowbajls / WiFi eċċ)
  • Downloads tipiċi jeħtieġu prijorità għolja ma throughput imma-prijorità baxxa ma 'latency
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • Ebda utenti għandhom jiġu prijoritizzati fuq oħrajn

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Kju Sempliċi.

I ħadna b'kitba qasir li jien ffrankati fuq mezzi MikroTik tiegħi biex iwaqqfu l-kjuwijiet sempliċi. Huwa dan li ġej:

:għall x minn 1 li 254 do ={
 /kju isem żid sempliċi ="internet usage- $ x" DST ="PPPoE" max-limitu = 1900k / 9500k mira ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Liema hawn fuq ma huwa limitu l-veloċità massima kull apparat individwali jistgħu jużaw biex “1900k” (1.9Mb) upload u “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Noti:

  • Ir-raġuni għaliex l-limiti mass huma fil 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Per eżempju, ma 100 utenti fuq servizz 20MB I setgħet toħloq dan il-limitu għal 15MB jew saħansitra ftit kemm 1Mb. Dan huwa kompletament dipendenti fuq kif “abbużiva” l-utenti huma u, kif inti figura fejn u kif l-abbuż kemm iseħħ, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • L-prefiss “-użu tal-internet” fil-parametru isem jista 'jiġi addattat. Tipikament I jistabbilixxu dawn li jirreferu għall-isem bini. Per eżempju, with premises named “alpha” u “beta”, I se tipikament tpoġġi “internet alpha” u “internet beta”. Dan jgħin istintivament ssir differenza bejn is-siti.
  • Il-parametru DST għandha “PPPoE” fl-eżempju. Dan għandu jiġi sostitwit bl-isem tal- interface that provides the Internet connection.

Jiżgura li inti customize-iskrittura li jkun xieraq li konfigurazzjoni tiegħek. Salv l-iskrittura għall-MikroTik u run – jew paste direttament fil terminali tal-MikroTik biex jiġi esegwit.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle regoli. Dawn ir-regoli jservu biex jidentifikaw / jikklassifikaw it-traffiku tan-network sabiex QoS bi ħbub ifjen possibbli.

Aqsam
Category: random
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