Torsdag, 1. januar, 2009 | Forfatter:

Tilsynelatende, hvilket operativsystem du bruker kan si mye om deg. Hvis du bruker en eller annen form for * nix, hvilken distro du bruker kan si mye også. Redundans til side, Jeg tror at en Linux-distribusjon avhenger absolutt av den pakkehåndtering og distribusjonssystem.

Jeg likte apt-get (1, 2) men det var noe teknisk problem på et tidspunkt, og det fikk meg til å bruke evne i stedet. Å bruke egnethet er litt enklere – den har flere funksjoner automatisert til enkelt, logisk, kommandoer der apt-get krever separate kommandoer. Aptitude har også en raser-basert GUI. Hvis du ikke bruker brukergrensesnittet da, annet enn kortfattethet når det gjelder antall kommandoer du skal lære, det er tilsynelatende ingen teknisk grunn til å foretrekke den ene fremfor den andre. Hyppighet og treff K / X / Ubuntu og Debian vel. Fra dette punktet, Jeg bruker navnene Kubuntu og Ubuntu på en løst utskiftbar måte.

I min bruk av CentOS (basert på Red Hat), Jeg har funnet at jeg liker yum. Det ser ut til å fungere omtrent som det – en kommando for å styre dem alle. Det har litt irriterende standardoppførsel jeg ikke kommer til å komme inn på her som det mest sannsynlig fordi jeg bare ikke er vant til det. I det minste fra et teknisk perspektiv, det er veldig bra. jeg tror at Fedora gjør også bruk av yum selv om min erfaring med Fedora er veldig begrenset.


Fedora og Ubuntu er i en klasse med distribusjoner som har en ganske streng utgivelsessyklus. Ubuntu 8.10 (versjonen er kalt slik for året og måneden den ble utgitt) vil ikke, bortsett fra større feil og mindre endringer, har en annen større oppdatering til neste versjon, Jaunty Jackalope. Ubuntu-brukere har de nyeste versjonene av mest programvare på stasjonære maskiner nå. I månedene før neste utgivelse, derimot, de kommer ikke til å være så heldige med mindre de liker å bruke “beta” utgivelser. As I’m not very familiar with Fedora, I’m not going to bother going into its release cycle.

These 2 distributions are also within a class of distributions known asbinary” eller “binary-baseddistributions. This means that when you download an update, the files that are downloaded are precompiled and should run on anysupportedhardware. This isn’t specifically optimised for your desktop’s hardware, for eksempel, your processor. Perhaps you have an AMD processor which has extra instruction support which Intel CPUs do not have. The reverse could also be true. For this reason, a binary-release distribution cannot optimise for one particular brand of hardware. Regardless of thisnon-optimisation”, it should run at a decent pace.

the practice!

Om 2 years ago I started using Kubuntu. After a few months of working with it, I started to learn more about its specifics. I’m not much of a fan of using GUI tools to update the system when, ultimately, its all happening on the command-line anyway. The GUI tools just hide the complexity I don’t mind seeing.

I ended up making a bash manus, update, which would run all the steps required to get aptitude to just go ahead and upgrade already, kthx?©, perhaps stopping along the way to back up my configuration, remount the NFS network share where we keep an on-site repository, back up the local cache of aptitude’s installed packages, do some folder-link shuffling to use a local copy if the network share couldn’t remount, sync between the local copy and the network share if the previous update had a network share issue, and update lists of packages in the repository. In general, it wouldn’t go ahead if there were any errors though, as you can tell, this script became a messy beast that went above and beyond the original requirements. It worked well for me.

Until the day came to update between Kubuntu 6.10 til 7.04. I did this manually though, not with the script.

I ended up reinstalling from scratch as a result of the mess that ensued. At least, as a backup administrator should do well to demonstrate, it was easy to recover everything I really needed. 🙂

What else is out there?

Even before I had to reinstall Kubuntu, I was introduced to another distribution called Gentoo. There are 2 very distinct differences between Gentoo and Ubuntu’s update system. The first is that Gentoo is a source-based distribution. This means that when you update a package, the package manager downloads the source and compiles everything, hopefully optimising it for your system. This, I think, is very cool. The downside to this is that compiling everything takes a very long time.

Here are my (very unscientific) estimates for the length of time it takes to install a basic GUI OS to a desktop from installation media, excluding extraneous drivers (for eksempel, the latest 3D graphics drivers):

OS: minmax (median)

Windows Vista: 15 – 30 (20) minutes

Ubuntu: 15 – 40 (20) minutes

Gentoo: 3 – 40 (6) hours

Gentoo also requires much tinkering with the config files in order to get things workingthis is another reason for the extremely long delay between inserting the CD and booting your awesome* new desktop. Popular applications have binary packages available for downloadthough this isn’t a default option.

They see me rollin

There is one more very important distinction Gentoo has from most other distributions. It is arolling-releasedistribution. This means that there isn’t any rigorous version orreleasethat the distribution adheres to. If you install Gentoo todayif you finish installing Gentoo today, you’re probably going to have the latest version of all the applications you installed. If some obscure application gets a major update tomorrow, within a few days, if you update your system, you’re going to have that latest version on your desktop.

The difference between this rolling release and theotherdistributions is rather staggering. For eksempel: If KDE 4.2 were to be released tomorrow, you’d probably have to wait less than 2 weeks for it to be available on Gentoo. Ubuntu users might have to wait till 9.04 – that’s a 4-month wait.

Something more suitable?

personlig, I’m not willing to put in the 40 hours of effort to get my system working the way I want it to. My colleague had to reinstall recently for some obscure reason and it turns out he wasn’t willing to put in the 6 hours (he’s more experienced with Gentoo) of effort to get his system back to how it was running either. Instead, Arch Linux caught his eye. Arch Linux is a rolling-release (like Gentoo), binary-based (like Ubuntu) distribution. Its packages (vel, the vast majority of them) don’t need much tinkering with their config files to get things working nicely either. Its the best of both worlds!

You still need to know what you’re doing* but if you’ve come to this juncture, it shouldn’t be such a giant leap of faith. Arch Linux’s package manager, called pacmann, has built-in dependency and conflict handling. I use another package manager, yoghurt (French for yoghurt), which has very quickly become popular with Arch users. Yaourt enhances the functionality of pacman by allowing you to download and install applications directly from the AUR, eller Arch User Repository. This repository contains scripts that allow you to automatically download and install many applications that would otherwise be completely unsupported by Arch’s own core developers. It downloads and compiles the package into a chroot’d environment. It then packages the chroot’d environment into a pacman-compatible package tarball and uses pacman to deploy it into your system.

Også, the AUR supports a voting system whereby popular packages get placed into the more official [community] oppbevaringssted. Yaourt also supports an automated voting mechanism whereby, after installing a package via AUR, it asks if you want to vote for its inclusion in [community].

I estimate that the time taken for my Arch installation was about 90 minutes. I don’t recommend Archlinux for newbies though I do recommend it for any Linux user who’s gotten bored with other distrosand wants to get into the nitty gritty without having to install Linux From Scratch. Arch Linux has been getting pretty popular these days. Its currently at number 14 på Distrowatch.

* IF you know what you’re doing. AND YOU BETTER BLOODY KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DOING!
Kategori: dogme, linux
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5 Responses

  1. 1

    You should try FreeBSD sometime. It can be installed from binaries (quickly) or from source. It can be updated from binaries or from source. It has rolling releases (STABLE and CURRENT) and timely releases that only receive subsequent security fixes (RELEASE).

    Packages can be installed from binaries or from source (most use source). Packages can be installed in a rolling fashion (latest and greatest), or can track timely releases.

    I install the OS from binaries, update the OS from source, and primarily use source for installing packages.

    Ccache improves compile times in a big way, btw.

  2. 2

    Hehe. I’d hazard to say that Archlinux is Linux built with BSD’s mindset.

    For one, It uses a BSD-style init systemwith /etc/rc.conf and the /etc/rc.d/ folder. I wouldn’t say its exactly the samejust that its styled similarly.

    I’m checking out ccache now btw. Som regel, I prefer installing from binary. Only once have I needed to install from source. Thanks for the heads-up.

  3. 3

    Hehe. Even the Arch wiki reckons they’re both very similar.

  4. 4

    even if my little advice very late ( 2009 vs. 2014 ) i think is worth the trouble of writing
    you mention gentoo vs. arch linux but you forgot to add the true gentoo child which is sabayon linux distro:

  5. 5

    Sabayon appears to be quite popular. Many things have changed since then of course.

    For one, I now strongly recommend against usingdo-everything-for-youhelper applications like yaourt. The primary reason for that is that the majority of users don’t really know what it is doing and it ishidingthings from the usersomething that goes againstThe Arch Way”.

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