Tag-Archive for » yoghurt «

Torsdag, 12. november, 2009 | Forfatter:

Hvis du noen gang finner deg selv å oppdatere et enkelt program i Arch Linux (en veldig dårlig idé, btw) og det oppgraderer leselinjen du kan ende opp med å se en feil på linje med:
/bin/bash: error while loading shared libraries: libreadline.so.5: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
Forhåpentligvis har du fortsatt en bash-ledetekst åpen, og du har ikke lukket dem alle. Hvis du fortsatt kan, med en gang kjør følgende:
pacman -S bash
ellers vil du ikke kunne løpe bash lenger fordi bash fortsatt vil koble til den gamle versjonen av leselinjen.

Også, i fremtiden, ikke løp
pacman -Sy application
(python i mitt tilfelle)
i stedet, løpe:
pacman -Syu
som vil sikre at alle applikasjoner blir oppgradert.

personlig, Jeg tror at bash burde ha hatt et avhengighetssett og sa at det krevde den gamle spesifikke versjonen av readline og det samme for den nye bash, requiring the new version of readline. Regardless, rather play it safe. 😉

Dele
onsdag, 22. april, 2009 | Forfatter:

Arch Linuxs installasjonsprosess er dokumentert på Arch wiki. Jeg anbefaler at personer som er ny med Arch prøver det utmerkede Nybegynnerguide i stedet for Offisiell Arch Linux Install Guide. Selv om begge wiki-oppføringene dekker lignende grunn, nybegynnerguiden gir mye mer relevant informasjon for de som er nye i systemet. Nybegynnerguiden er rettet mot desktopinstallasjon og, mens jeg installerer en server, Jeg vil overhode ikke gjennomgå installasjonen av det grafiske miljøet. Forutsatt at du følger installasjonen min, antar at jeg har fulgt nybegynnerguiden helt til og med installasjonen av sudo. Jeg installerte ssh-demon da, i stedet for under den første oppsettet.

Noen få små anbefalinger og merknader om installasjon:

  • Hvis du kan, kan du vurdere å bruke en USB-minnepinne til installasjonsprogrammet og holde den hendig for fremtidige installasjoner.
  • Jeg oppbevarer en kopi av min lokale “oppbevaringssted” av installerte applikasjoner på installasjonsminnepinnen. Når installasjonen er ferdig sparer jeg litt nedlasting og oppdateringstid ved å kopiere dette til den nye serverens / var / cache / pacman / pkg / folder. Arkivet på skrivebordet mitt er vanligvis 1,7 GB
  • For rc.conf, Sør-afrikanske passende regionale innstillinger er:
    LOCALE =”en_ZA.utf8″
    ZONE =”Afrika / Johannesburg”
  • Jeg har satt opp nettverket veldig enkelt, i følge guiden, og vil utvide nettverksoppsettet i et senere innlegg.
  • Som det er for en server, Min ikke-privilegerte bruker på serveren er bare en del av 3 grupper: hjul (for sudo), Oppbevaring, og brukere. En stasjonær bruker vil sannsynligvis være i mange flere grupper.

Jeg foretrekker å bruke et program som heter yoghurt i stedet for Archs standard pakkesjef. Yaourt har nøyaktig samme brukssyntaks som pacman bortsett fra at den støtter noen få ekstra alternativer. Det er faktisk en innpakningsapplikasjon i og med at den, på tur, bruker pacman. viktigere, yaourt støtter installasjon av applikasjoner fra Arch's GULL. Den GULL er et lagringssted for installasjonsskript bygget av Arch-brukere for Arch-brukere for enkelt å installere applikasjoner som ikke offisielt støttes av de viktigste Arch-depotene. Yaourt kan laste ned og installere applikasjoner fra AUR eller hovedlager med samme kommando, behandle AUR som “bare et annet depot”. Pacman støtter dessverre ikke dette.

En gang til, installasjonen er dekket av wiki. Jeg anbefaler den enkle ruten som er nevnt i wikien hvis du er ny på Arch. Det er for mye for tidlig til å gjøre det på den harde måten (også nevnt i wiki-oppføringen).

Når ferdig, oppdater systemet ditt ved å utgi den eneste kommandoen:

yaourt -Syu

ELLER

pacman -Syu

og følg de gitte anbefalingene.

Dele
Tuesday, February 17th, 2009 | Forfatter:

Some of you may already know that I built a home server not too long ago. I documented some of the very important parts of how it was built though I was planning on releasing all the documentation all at once. I was using Arch Linux and I hadn’t nearly finished everything, especially the documentation. For eksempel, it was supposed to be a media server. After some disk shuffling, it was supposed to end up having a RAID1 for the boot and RAID 10 for the rest (the media part).

This didn’t work out at all.

I got as far as having an efficient (og velfirewalled) routing gateway server. I was finally satisfied that the customised local routing* was working correctly and I was confident that my tests with DHCP meant I could disable the DHCP service on the flimsy ADSL router and have all my flatmates start using the server as the Internet inngangsport. Instead: I was logged in to the server from the office, I’d just installed Apache2**, and I was about to consult with a colleague regarding getting nice graphs put together so the flatmates could all see who was using up the bandwidth***when I noticed a little message indicating that the root filesystem had been remounted read-only due to some or other disk failure.

And then I lost my connection to the server.

And then I gained a foul mood.

🙁

When I arrived home, I found that, as I had guessed from the descriptive message given at the office, de (svært) old 80GB IDE disk that I was using for the root filesystem had failed. Unfortunately, the server would never boot again and there was little chance of prying everything off onto another disk to continue where I’d left off.

I’m buying a replacement (SATA) HDD this next weekend just after pay dayand I’ve changed my mind about documenting my progressand backing up my configurations:

Release Early. Release Often.

* ISPs in South Africa charge less (easy price comparison) forlocal-only” (within South Africa) traffic on ADSL but only if you use an ADSL account that CANNOT access web services outside of South Africa. This means that if you want to take advantage of the reduced costs but still be able to access the Internet at large, you need to set up some sneaky routing.

** one-command-install: ~$ yaourt -S apache

*** Internet Access in SA is expensiveyou get charged about R70 ($7 / £4.9 / €5.46) per GB when using ADSL, or about R2 per MB if using GPRS / 3G.

Dele
Torsdag, 1. januar, 2009 | Forfatter:

Tilsynelatende, hvilket operativsystem du bruker kan si mye om deg. Hvis du bruker en eller annen form for * nix, hvilken distro du bruker kan si mye også. Redundans til side, Jeg tror at en Linux-distribusjon avhenger absolutt av den pakkehåndtering og distribusjonssystem.

Jeg likte apt-get (1, 2) men det var noe teknisk problem på et tidspunkt, og det fikk meg til å bruke evne i stedet. Å bruke egnethet er litt enklere – den har flere funksjoner automatisert til enkelt, logisk, kommandoer der apt-get krever separate kommandoer. Aptitude har også en raser-basert GUI. Hvis du ikke bruker brukergrensesnittet da, annet enn kortfattethet når det gjelder antall kommandoer du skal lære, det er tilsynelatende ingen teknisk grunn til å foretrekke den ene fremfor den andre. Hyppighet og treff K / X / Ubuntu og Debian vel. Fra dette punktet, Jeg bruker navnene Kubuntu og Ubuntu på en løst utskiftbar måte.

I min bruk av CentOS (basert på Red Hat), Jeg har funnet at jeg liker yum. Det ser ut til å fungere omtrent som det – en kommando for å styre dem alle. Det har litt irriterende standardoppførsel jeg ikke kommer til å komme inn på her som det mest sannsynlig fordi jeg bare ikke er vant til det. I det minste fra et teknisk perspektiv, det er veldig bra. jeg tror at Fedora gjør også bruk av yum selv om min erfaring med Fedora er veldig begrenset.

teorien…

Fedora og Ubuntu er i en klasse med distribusjoner som har en ganske streng utgivelsessyklus. Ubuntu 8.10 (versjonen er kalt slik for året og måneden den ble utgitt) vil ikke, bortsett fra større feil og mindre endringer, har en annen større oppdatering til neste versjon, Jaunty Jackalope. Ubuntu-brukere har de nyeste versjonene av mest programvare på stasjonære maskiner nå. I månedene før neste utgivelse, derimot, de kommer ikke til å være så heldige med mindre de liker å bruke “beta” utgivelser. As I’m not very familiar with Fedora, I’m not going to bother going into its release cycle.

These 2 distributions are also within a class of distributions known asbinary” eller “binary-baseddistributions. This means that when you download an update, the files that are downloaded are precompiled and should run on anysupportedhardware. This isn’t specifically optimised for your desktop’s hardware, for eksempel, your processor. Perhaps you have an AMD processor which has extra instruction support which Intel CPUs do not have. The reverse could also be true. For this reason, a binary-release distribution cannot optimise for one particular brand of hardware. Regardless of thisnon-optimisation”, it should run at a decent pace.

the practice!

Om 2 years ago I started using Kubuntu. After a few months of working with it, I started to learn more about its specifics. I’m not much of a fan of using GUI tools to update the system when, ultimately, its all happening on the command-line anyway. The GUI tools just hide the complexity I don’t mind seeing.

I ended up making a bash manus, update, which would run all the steps required to get aptitude to just go ahead and upgrade already, kthx?©, perhaps stopping along the way to back up my configuration, remount the NFS network share where we keep an on-site repository, back up the local cache of aptitude’s installed packages, do some folder-link shuffling to use a local copy if the network share couldn’t remount, sync between the local copy and the network share if the previous update had a network share issue, and update lists of packages in the repository. In general, it wouldn’t go ahead if there were any errors though, as you can tell, this script became a messy beast that went above and beyond the original requirements. It worked well for me.

Until the day came to update between Kubuntu 6.10 til 7.04. I did this manually though, not with the script.

I ended up reinstalling from scratch as a result of the mess that ensued. At least, as a backup administrator should do well to demonstrate, it was easy to recover everything I really needed. 🙂

What else is out there?

Even before I had to reinstall Kubuntu, I was introduced to another distribution called Gentoo. There are 2 very distinct differences between Gentoo and Ubuntu’s update system. The first is that Gentoo is a source-based distribution. This means that when you update a package, the package manager downloads the source and compiles everything, hopefully optimising it for your system. This, I think, is very cool. The downside to this is that compiling everything takes a very long time.

Here are my (very unscientific) estimates for the length of time it takes to install a basic GUI OS to a desktop from installation media, excluding extraneous drivers (for eksempel, the latest 3D graphics drivers):

OS: minmax (median)

Windows Vista: 15 – 30 (20) minutes

Ubuntu: 15 – 40 (20) minutes

Gentoo: 3 – 40 (6) hours

Gentoo also requires much tinkering with the config files in order to get things workingthis is another reason for the extremely long delay between inserting the CD and booting your awesome* new desktop. Popular applications have binary packages available for downloadthough this isn’t a default option.

They see me rollin

There is one more very important distinction Gentoo has from most other distributions. It is arolling-releasedistribution. This means that there isn’t any rigorous version orreleasethat the distribution adheres to. If you install Gentoo todayif you finish installing Gentoo today, you’re probably going to have the latest version of all the applications you installed. If some obscure application gets a major update tomorrow, within a few days, if you update your system, you’re going to have that latest version on your desktop.

The difference between this rolling release and theotherdistributions is rather staggering. For eksempel: If KDE 4.2 were to be released tomorrow, you’d probably have to wait less than 2 weeks for it to be available on Gentoo. Ubuntu users might have to wait till 9.04 – that’s a 4-month wait.

Something more suitable?

personlig, I’m not willing to put in the 40 hours of effort to get my system working the way I want it to. My colleague had to reinstall recently for some obscure reason and it turns out he wasn’t willing to put in the 6 hours (he’s more experienced with Gentoo) of effort to get his system back to how it was running either. Instead, Arch Linux caught his eye. Arch Linux is a rolling-release (like Gentoo), binary-based (like Ubuntu) distribution. Its packages (vel, the vast majority of them) don’t need much tinkering with their config files to get things working nicely either. Its the best of both worlds!

You still need to know what you’re doing* but if you’ve come to this juncture, it shouldn’t be such a giant leap of faith. Arch Linux’s package manager, called pacmann, has built-in dependency and conflict handling. I use another package manager, yoghurt (French for yoghurt), which has very quickly become popular with Arch users. Yaourt enhances the functionality of pacman by allowing you to download and install applications directly from the AUR, eller Arch User Repository. This repository contains scripts that allow you to automatically download and install many applications that would otherwise be completely unsupported by Arch’s own core developers. It downloads and compiles the package into a chroot’d environment. It then packages the chroot’d environment into a pacman-compatible package tarball and uses pacman to deploy it into your system.

Også, the AUR supports a voting system whereby popular packages get placed into the more official [community] oppbevaringssted. Yaourt also supports an automated voting mechanism whereby, after installing a package via AUR, it asks if you want to vote for its inclusion in [community].

I estimate that the time taken for my Arch installation was about 90 minutes. I don’t recommend Archlinux for newbies though I do recommend it for any Linux user who’s gotten bored with other distrosand wants to get into the nitty gritty without having to install Linux From Scratch. Arch Linux has been getting pretty popular these days. Its currently at number 14 på Distrowatch.

* IF you know what you’re doing. AND YOU BETTER BLOODY KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DOING!
Dele