Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Qaybta 1 – Hordhac – Dejinta safafka Simple (Tani post)
  • Qaybta 2 – Kalsoonaan karo Aqoonsiga gaadiidka – Dejinta Mangle Rules (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 3 – Mudnaanta iyo XUDUUDDA – Dejinta Geedaha safka (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 4 – Monitoring Usage – Ayaal safafka – Limiting Abusive Devices (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 5 – ??? Faa'iido ???

Hordhac

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Caadi ahaan qofna ma oga sababta, kuwaas oo, ama waxa keenaya dhibaatada – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Mararka qaarkood waxa ISP ee – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “sites / dhismaha” Isticmaalka in QoS si ay u maareeyaan isku xirnaanta Internet ay. Mid ka mid ah waa goobta shaqada, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – sida caadiga ah oo kaliya la xidhiidha guri, laakiin haddii kale, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-Nin (oo sii kordhaya) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS iyo

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, sida DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Xalin lahaayeen, oo sidaas. Inta badan oo ka mid ah caadi ahaan u baahan tahay in aad qabto server oo dheeraad ah oo ku saabsan been ama router ah hardware socon. Mikrotik iibiya RouterBoards in ay leeyihiin RouterOS builtin – oo ay raqiis yihiin.

My waayo-aragnimo la router ugu horrayn la Cisco iyo MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Riddaa ee NetEnforcer / NetXplorer nidaamyada iyo MikroTik. The qalabka MikroTik ugu caansan ee aan waayo-aragnimo (aan ahayn qalabka ay mudada dheer kala duwan oo heegan ah wireless) ayaa ay rb750 (version cusub magacaabay “hEX“) iyo rb950-looxyadii ku salaysan. Waxay leeyihiin kuwo kale oo badan available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Waxaan u muuqdaan in lagu qeexo qalabka MikroTik ee sida “90% muuqaalada ee 10% kharashka”. Sida buugan waxaa looga jeedo ugu horayn SME isticmaalka Home /, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, la soco in router MikroTik sameeyo ma typically include DSL modems, Saasuuna kuu qalabka jira waa caadi ahaan weli loo baahan yahay. Fiiro gaar ah sidoo kale in tani ay tahay ma tutorial ah oo ku saabsan qalab MikroTik ah u fidinno ka xoq. Waxaa jira badan oo Hanuuniyaa heli karaa online for in mar hore.

Aragtida dhaqan – Tallaabooyinkii ugu horeeyay ee

Si aad qotomisay QoS sax ah, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Guud ahaan xawaaraha xiriir
  • Sidee badan oo dadka isticmaala / qalabka la isticmaalayo doonaa xiriir
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Si loo gaaro dushiisa xagga tusaalooyinka aan, Waxaan u qaadan doonaa waxyaabaha soo socda:

  • MikroTik ayaa lagu wadaa la qaabeynta shabakadda default meesha network maxalliga ah waa 192.168.88.0/24 iyo internet-ka waxaa la siiyaa via PPPoE.
  • Xawaaraha la xidhiidha waxa ay tahay 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps xawaaraha download; 2 Mbps xawaaraha Upload)
  • Waxaa jiri doona 5 users leh sida ugu badan 15 qalab (kombiyuutarada badan / kiniinno / telefoonada gacanta / WiFi iwm)
  • Downloads caadiga ah u baahan mudnaan sare la dhex laakiin low-mudnaanta leh Telcom
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • No dadka isticmaala ay tahay in la kala mudnaan badan kuwa kale

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Safka Simple.

Waxaan sameeyay script gaaban oo aan u badbaadiyey on qalabka MikroTik aan u qotomiyey safafka fudud. Waana sidan soo socota:

:x ka 1 si ay u 254 yeela ={
 /saf fudud magaca add ="internet-usage- $ x" dst ="pppoe" max-xadka = 1900k / 9500k target ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Waa maxay kor ku yaal aanu waa xadka xawaaraha ugu badan ee qof kasta oo qalab isticmaali karto si aad “1900k” (1.9Mb) geliyaan iyo “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Notes:

  • Sababta sababta xadka max yihiin 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Tusaale ahaan, la 100 dadka isticmaala adeegga 20MB waxaan laga yaabaa in xadka si 15Mb dhigay ama xataa yar sida 1Mb. Tani waxay ku xiran yahay sida “xadgudub” users yihiin iyo, sida inaad ogaatid meesha iyo sida xadgudub badan waxay dhacdaa, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Horgalaha “internet-isticmaalka” in dhimaya magaca laga beddeli karaa. Sida caadiga ah waan kuwaas oo qarka u saaran inuu tixraac magaca goobta. Tusaale ahaan, with premises named “Alfa” iyo “beta”, Waxaan caadi ahaan gelin doonaa “internet-Alfa” iyo “internet-beta”. Taasi waxay gacan ka dabiicadda kala dhexeeya goobaha.
  • Halbeegga dst waxay leedahay “pppoe” tusaale ahaan. Tani waa in la bedelay magaca interface that provides the Internet connection.

Hubi in aad u astaysto script ah in ay haboontahay in ay aad u qaabeynta. Save script in ay MikroTik ah iyo waxa maamula – ama si toos ah paste ku MikroTik ee terminal si ay u soo dejiyaan.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle Xeerarka. Sharciyadan waa u adeega si ay u aqoonsadaan / kala saaraan gaadiidka network si ay u sameeyaan QoS qaadhaan-grained suurto gal.

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Category: random  | Leave a Comment
Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:

Privacy, Waqtiga, Money

Ma jecli amar debit aadan. Waligey ma jeclaa fikradda ah in cidda kale awoodno, at will, qaadan ku dhawaad ​​lacag kasta oo aan lacag (iyo sidoo kale … wax kasta oo la heli karo). Shaqaalahan oo tilmaamay arrinta la MTN laga hortagi lahaa waxaan la isticmaalayo si debit ah. Waxaa laga yaabaa in ay “raaxadeeda” factor ma jiro wax xun.

Waxaan u malaynayaa su'aasha ceshadka halkan waa haddii aad rabto in aad nolasha iyo aamini karaan hay'adaha (kiiskan oo aad lacag) – ama haddii aad iyaga aan la aamini karin oo diyaar u yihiin inay iska iloobaan in sahlo. In kiiskeyga, inkastoo aan weli wax warsataan nolasha, Waxaan bartay habka ugu adag la MTN in laab noqon kartaa xanibayo in aad aduunka ugu xiran hoos u dhigay “jasiiradda fog” status. Ku dhawaad ​​qof kasta oo maanta la factor dhaw raaxadeeda waxa uu aadayo.

Dhibyaraan

Dhinaca kale, wakhti dheer ka hor, I had a dispute with Planet Fitness halkaas oo sahlo ahaa seef laba af leh. Waxaan la sheegay in dhaqanka ganacsi si ay u Komishanka Cabashooyinka Consumer (tan iyo dib-u-abaabulan sida Komishanka Qaranka ee Consumer) and never got feedback from them. The gist of the issue is that Planet Fitness’s sales agent lied to me and a friend in order to get more commission/money out of my pocket.

Waxaan ahay a Discovery koboca xubin ka tirsan oo ku siinaya faa'iidooyin badan, oo ay ku jiraan heerka hoos ku magac Premium – inta badan la xiriira caafimaadka dabcan, as Discovery is a Medical Aid/Health Insurance provider. Si aad u dhigay si fudud, Discovery waa cabsi. Faa'iidooyinka koboca ee dabooli xubin gym oo dheeraad ah waxaa ka mid ah Planet Fitness. You still have to pay something, calaamo yar oo ah madaxa bannaanaa, si Discovery, xubin jimicsiga. Laakiin, ka dib oo dhan, Waxay rabaan ii ahaan caafimaad qaba, so they don’t mind footing the bulk of the bill. Laakiin, muuqata, tani waxay ka dhigan Planet Fitness’ wakiilada iibka aan helin komishanka!

Sidaas waxa natiijadan ku sameeya? Natiijadu waxay tahay in wakiilka iibka PF ee i siiyey tiro buunbuuniyo ah “Koboca ku salaysan” xubin. Waxa uu been. Waxa uu markaas i soo wareegto on line ugu dhibcaha qiimo ah buunbuuniyo ah “joogto ah” xubin (haa, waxa uu ahaa dhab ahaan ka badan xitaa xubin joogto ah in lagu qarash gareeyo), ending up about 4 iyo 5 jeer sida ugu badan ee xubin ka koboca ku salaysan ee.

Epiphanies

Some time in 2011 Waxaan ugu dambeyntii wisened ilaa kharashka aan filanayay in laga bixinta ahaa. Discovery hubiyo in aan noqon doono mid aad u faraxsan oo ku saabsan Buuqa this waxaan ahay. Waxaan la hadlay tababaraha ugu jimicsiga, oo waxaa la ii xaqiijiyay in heshiiska oo dhan waa la burburinayaa lahaa. Waxaan ka mid rabshadaha aan ahay … haddii ay Isboortiga … in Octagon ah … laakiin ka dib markii aan booqashada 5aad Maareeyaha si aad u weydiiso sababta Amarka Debit ah ayaa weli ka dhacaya, waxa uu ii sheegay inuu la yaabay aanan keenay hub ila soo booqato. Ka dib markii a booqashooyin dheeraad ah oo yar, Maareeyaha ayaa dhab ahaan ka tagay Planet Fitness oo ii sharxay in “heshiis” was between myself and Head Office and that the local gym, muuqata howlgal taaso-style ah, yar si ay u lahayn oo ku saabsan in ama aan u la tirtiri laga yaabaa. Haddii Head Office ayaa sheegay inaysan jirin, nasiib adag.

By this point I’d lost it. I had my bank put a joojiyo amarrada debit ah. It was a huge schlep: I had to contact the bank every month because the debit order descriptions would change ever so slightly. It also cost me a little every couple of months to “celiso” the blocking adeegga. Anigu ma caawin karo, laakiin qabaa nidaamka banki taageertaa tibaaxaha joogto ah laakiin shaqaalaha daruuri ma aha in la ogaado sida loo isticmaalo.

Technically I’m still waiting on the CCC to get back to me (Marnaba ma aysan dhicin – iyo dabcan ay dib-u-abaabulan sida kor ku xusan si kiiska ay u badan tahay iyada oo dildilaaca ku dhacay). Dabcan, by dhibic in PF ayaa sidoo kale doonayay in uu ii madow maxaa yeelay, ma bixinta!

Hero lama filaanka

Xusuuso A qasay.Shacabka uu arinka ka qabo Discovery (Waxaan qabaa inaan u yeedhay oo ku saabsan booqashada dhakhtarka ilkaha) keentay in callback ah mid ka mid ah Discovery ee wakiilada. Kadibna waxay i weydiiyay in lagu qeexo dhibaatada, si faahfaahsan oo qoraal ah, inay si fiican u sharax ka aragti wixii dhacay. Waxaan ku waajib ah. Waxaa soo baxday waan ku qummanaa ayuu iyaga ku saabsan oo aan “aad u faraxsan” ku saabsan. Dhab ahaantii ay run ahaantii ma jeclaan. About three weeks later, Planet Fitness ii soo celin in FULL ee dhammaan lacagaha in weli la bixiyo iyaga.

Discovery waa Awesome. 🙂

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Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

I had a power outage affect my server’s large md RAID array. Rather than let the server as a whole be down while waiting for it to complete an fsck, I had it boot without the large array so I could run the fsck manually.

However, when running it manually I realised I had no way of knowing how far it was and how long it would take to complete. This is especially problematic with such a large array. With a little searching I found the tip of adding the -C parameter when calling fsck. I couldn’t find this in the documentation however: fsckhelp showed no such option.

The option turns out to be ext4-specific, and thus shows a perfectly functional progress bar with a percentage indicator. To find the information, instead offsckhelporman fsck”, you have to inputfsck.ext4helporman fsck.ext4”. 🙂

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Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

History

Much had changed since I last mentioned my personal serverit has grown by leaps and bounds (it now has a 7TB md RAID6) and it had recently been rebuilt with Ubuntu Server.

Arch was never a mistake. Arch Linux had already taught me so much about Linux (and will continue to do so on my other desktop). But Arch definitely requires more time and attention than I would like to spend on a server. Ideally I’d prefer to be able to forget about the server for a while until a reminder email saysumthere’s a couple updates you should look at, buddy.

Space isn’t freeand neither is space

The opportunity to migrate to Ubuntu was the fact that I had run out of SATA ports, the ports required to connect hard drives to the rest of the computerthat 7TB RAID array uses a lot of ports! I had even given away my very old 200GB hard disk as it took up one of those ports. I also warned the recipient that the disk’s SMART monitoring indicated it was unreliable. As a temporary workaround to the lack of SATA ports, I had even migrated the server’s OS to a set of four USB sticks in an md RAID1. Crazy. I know. I wasn’t too happy about the speed. I decided to go out and buy a new reliable hard drive and a SATA expansion card to go with it.

The server’s primary Arch partition was using about 7GB of disk. A big chunk of that was a swap file, cached data and otherwise miscellaneous or unnecessary files. Overall the actual size of the OS, including the /home folder, was only about 2GB. This prompted me to look into a super-fast SSD drive, thinking perhaps a smaller one might not be so expensive. It turned out that the cheapest non-SSD drive I could find actually cost more than one of these relatively small SSDs. Yay for me. 🙂

Choice? Woah?!

In choosing the OS, I’d already decided it wouldn’t be Arch. Out of all the other popular distributions, I’m most familiar with Ubuntu and CentOS. Fedora was also a possibilitybut I hadn’t seriously yet considered it for a server. Ubuntu won the round.

The next decision I had to make didn’t occur to me until Ubiquity (Ubuntu’s installation wizard) asked it of me: How to set up the partitions.

I was new to using SSDs in LinuxI’m well aware of the pitfalls of not using them correctly, mostly due to their risk of poor longevity if misused.

I didn’t want to use a dedicated swap partition. I plan on upgrading the server’s motherboard/CPU/memory not too far in the future. Based on that I decided I will put swap into a swap file on the existing md RAID. The swap won’t be particularly fast but its only purpose will be for that rare occasion when something’s gone wrong and the memory isn’t available.

This then left me to give the root path the full 60GB out of an Intel 330 SSD. I considered separating /home but it just seemed a little pointless, given how little was used in the past. I first set up the partition with LVMsomething I’ve recently been doing whenever I set up a Linux box (run ahaantii, there’s no excuse not to use LVM). When it got to the part where I would configure the filesystem, I clicked the drop-down and instinctively selected ext4. Then I noticed btrfs in the same list. Hang on!!

But a what?

Btrfs (“butter-eff-ess”, “better-eff-ess”, “bee-tree-eff-ess”, or whatever you fancy on the day) is a relatively new filesystem developed in order to bring Linuxfilesystem capabilities back on track with current filesystem tech. The existing King-of-the-Hill filesystem, “ext” (the current version called ext4) is pretty goodbut it is limited, stuck in an old paradigm (think of a brand new F22 Raptor vs. an F4 Phantom with a half-jested attempt at an equivalency upgrade) and is unlikely to be able to compete for very long with newer Enterprise filesystems such as Oracle’s ZFS. Btrfs still has a long way to go and is still considered experimental (depending on who you ask and what features you need). Many consider it to be stable for basic usebut nobody is going to make any guarantees. And, Dabcan, everyone is saying to make and test backups!

Mooooooo

The most fundamental difference between ext and btrfs is that btrfs is aCoWorCopy on Writefilesystem. This means that data is never actually deliberately overwritten by the filesystem’s internals. If you write a change to a file, btrfs will write your changes to a new location on physical media and will update the internal pointers to refer to the new location. Btrfs goes a step further in that those internal pointers (referred to as metadata) are also CoW. Older versions of ext would have simply overwritten the data. Ext4 would use a Journal to ensure that corruption won’t occur should the AC plug be yanked out at the most inopportune moment. The journal results in a similar number of steps required to update data. With an SSD, the underlying hardware operates a similar CoW process no matter what filesystem you’re using. This is because SSD drives cannot actually overwrite datathey have to copy the data (with your changes) to a new location and then erase the old block entirely. An optimisation in this area is that an SSD might not even erase the old block but rather simply make a note to erase the block at a later time when things aren’t so busy. The end result is that SSD drives fit very well with a CoW filesystem and don’t perform as well with non-CoW filesystems.

To make matters interesting, CoW in the filesystem easily goes hand in hand with a feature called deduplication. This allows two (or more) identical blocks of data to be stored using only a single copy, saving space. With CoW, if a deduplicated file is modified, the separate twin won’t be affected as the modified file’s data will have been written to a different physical block.

CoW in turn makes snapshotting relatively easy to implement. When a snapshot is made the system merely records the new snapshot as being a duplication of all data and metadata within the volume. With CoW, when changes are made, the snapshot’s data stays intact, and a consistent view of the filesystem’s status at the time the snapshot was made can be maintained.

A new friend

With the above in mind, especially as Ubuntu has made btrfs available as an install-time option, I figured it would be a good time to dive into btrfs and explore a little. 🙂

Qaybta 2 coming soon

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Monday, October 29th, 2012 | Author:

It appears that, in infinite wisdom, Google have a security feature that can block an application from accessing or using your google account. I can see how this might be a problem for Google’s users, in particular their GTalk iyo Gmail users. In my case it was Pidgin having an issue with the Jabber adeegga (which is technically part of GTalk). I found the solution after a little digging. I was surprised at how old the issue was and how long this feature has existed!

To unlock the account and get your application online, use Google’s Captcha page here.

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