Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Qoraa:
  • Qaybta 1 – Hordhac – Dejinta safafka Simple (Tani post)
  • Qaybta 2 – Kalsoonaan karo Aqoonsiga gaadiidka – Dejinta Mangle Rules (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 3 – Mudnaanta iyo XUDUUDDA – Dejinta Geedaha safka (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 4 – Monitoring Usage – Ayaal safafka – Limiting Abusive Devices (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 5 – ??? Faa'iido ???

Hordhac

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Caadi ahaan qofna ma oga sababta, kuwaas oo, ama waxa keenaya dhibaatada – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Mararka qaarkood waxa ISP ee – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “sites / dhismaha” Isticmaalka in QoS si ay u maareeyaan isku xirnaanta Internet ay. Mid ka mid ah waa goobta shaqada, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – sida caadiga ah oo kaliya la xidhiidha guri, laakiin haddii kale, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-Nin (oo sii kordhaya) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS iyo

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, sida DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Xalin lahaayeen, oo sidaas. Inta badan oo ka mid ah caadi ahaan u baahan tahay in aad qabto server oo dheeraad ah oo ku saabsan been ama router ah hardware socon. Mikrotik iibiya RouterBoards in ay leeyihiin RouterOS builtin – oo ay raqiis yihiin.

My waayo-aragnimo la router ugu horrayn la Cisco iyo MikroTik – iyo waaya-aragnimadayda QoS marka hore waxay la jirtaa Riddaa ee NetEnforcer / NetXplorer nidaamyada iyo MikroTik. The qalabka MikroTik ugu caansan ee aan waayo-aragnimo (aan ahayn qalabka ay mudada dheer kala duwan oo heegan ah wireless) ayaa ay rb750 (version cusub magacaabay “hEX“) iyo rb950-looxyadii ku salaysan. Waxay leeyihiin kuwo kale oo badan waa la heli karaa waana jaban yihiin. Marka la barbardhigo taariikhi ah qalabka caymiska ee Cisco, Waxaan u muuqdaan in lagu qeexo qalabka MikroTik ee sida “90% muuqaalada ee 10% kharashka”. Sida buugan waxaa looga jeedo ugu horayn SME isticmaalka Home /, jaban ayaa macno badan samaynaysa. Haddii aad raadineyso helitaanka qalab MikroTik, la soco in router MikroTik sameeyo ma sida caadiga ah ku dar modemka DSL, Saasuuna kuu qalabka jira waa caadi ahaan weli loo baahan yahay. Fiiro gaar ah sidoo kale in tani ay tahay ma tutorial ah oo ku saabsan qalab MikroTik ah u fidinno ka xoq. Waxaa jira badan oo Hanuuniyaa heli karaa online for in mar hore.

Aragtida dhaqan – Tallaabooyinkii ugu horeeyay ee

Si aad qotomisay QoS sax ah, waxaad u baahan tahay inaad fikrad ka haysato siyaasad tixgelinaysa waxyaabaha soo socda:

  • Guud ahaan xawaaraha xiriir
  • Sidee badan oo dadka isticmaala / qalabka la isticmaalayo doonaa xiriir
  • Isticmaalayaasha / aaladaha / adeegyada / borotokoolka ay tahay in mudnaanta la siiyo daahitaanka iyo / ama soo gudbinta

Si loo gaaro dushiisa xagga tusaalooyinka aan, Waxaan u qaadan doonaa waxyaabaha soo socda:

  • MikroTik ayaa lagu wadaa la qaabeynta shabakadda default meesha network maxalliga ah waa 192.168.88.0/24 iyo internet-ka waxaa la siiyaa via PPPoE.
  • Xawaaraha la xidhiidha waxa ay tahay 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps xawaaraha download; 2 Mbps xawaaraha Upload)
  • Waxaa jiri doona 5 users leh sida ugu badan 15 qalab (kombiyuutarada badan / kiniinno / telefoonada gacanta / WiFi iwm)
  • Downloads caadiga ah u baahan mudnaan sare la dhex laakiin low-mudnaanta leh Telcom
  • Ciyaaraha / Skype / Nidaamyada Maamulka waxay u baahan yihiin mudnaan sare oo leh daahitaan iyo wax soo saar labadaba
  • No dadka isticmaala ay tahay in la kala mudnaan badan kuwa kale

Tallaabada ugu horreysa uguna dhaqsaha badan waa in la dejiyo waxa RouterOS loola jeedo a Safka Simple.

Waxaan sameeyay script gaaban oo aan u badbaadiyey on qalabka MikroTik aan u qotomiyey safafka fudud. Waana sidan soo socota:

:x ka 1 si ay u 254 yeela ={
 /saf fudud magaca add ="internet-usage- $ x" dst ="pppoe" max-xadka = 1900k / 9500k target ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Waa maxay kor ku yaal aanu waa xadka xawaaraha ugu badan ee qof kasta oo qalab isticmaali karto si aad “1900k” (1.9Mb) geliyaan iyo “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Notes:

  • Sababta sababta xadka max yihiin 95% xawaaraha ugu sarreeya ee xariiqda ayaa ah in kani uusan damaanad qaadin in qalab keliya uusan si buuxda u gaajoon karin isku-xirnaanta, si xun u saameynaya isticmaaleyaasha kale. Iyada oo leh saldhig weyn oo ballaadhan ayaan sii xoojin lahaa xadkaas. Tusaale ahaan, la 100 dadka isticmaala adeegga 20MB waxaan laga yaabaa in xadka si 15Mb dhigay ama xataa yar sida 1Mb. Tani waxay ku xiran yahay sida “xadgudub” users yihiin iyo, sida inaad ogaatid meesha iyo sida xadgudub badan waxay dhacdaa, waad ku hagaajin kartaa si habboon.
  • Horgalaha “internet-isticmaalka” in dhimaya magaca laga beddeli karaa. Sida caadiga ah waan kuwaas oo qarka u saaran inuu tixraac magaca goobta. Tusaale ahaan, iyadoo dhismayaal loogu magac daray “Alfa” iyo “beta”, Waxaan caadi ahaan gelin doonaa “internet-Alfa” iyo “internet-beta”. Taasi waxay gacan ka dabiicadda kala dhexeeya goobaha.
  • Halbeegga dst waxay leedahay “pppoe” tusaale ahaan. Tani waa in la bedelay magaca interface kaas oo bixiya isku xirka internetka.

Hubi in aad u astaysto script ah in ay haboontahay in ay aad u qaabeynta. Save script in ay MikroTik ah iyo waxa maamula – ama si toos ah paste ku MikroTik ee terminal si ay u soo dejiyaan.

Qoraalkayga soo socda ayaan dul mari doonaa dejinta waxa RouterOS loola jeedo Mangle Xeerarka. Sharciyadan waa u adeega si ay u aqoonsadaan / kala saaraan gaadiidka network si ay u sameeyaan QoS qaadhaan-grained suurto gal.

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Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Qoraa:

Privacy, Waqtiga, Money

Ma jecli amar debit aadan. Waligey ma jeclaa fikradda ah in cidda kale awoodno, at will, qaadan ku dhawaad ​​lacag kasta oo aan lacag (iyo sidoo kale … wax kasta oo la heli karo). Shaqaalahan oo tilmaamay arrinta la MTN laga hortagi lahaa waxaan la isticmaalayo si debit ah. Waxaa laga yaabaa in ay “raaxadeeda” factor ma jiro wax xun.

Waxaan u malaynayaa su'aasha ceshadka halkan waa haddii aad rabto in aad nolasha iyo aamini karaan hay'adaha (kiiskan oo aad lacag) – ama haddii aad iyaga aan la aamini karin oo diyaar u yihiin inay iska iloobaan in sahlo. In kiiskeyga, inkastoo aan weli wax warsataan nolasha, Waxaan bartay habka ugu adag la MTN in laab noqon kartaa xanibayo in aad aduunka ugu xiran hoos u dhigay “jasiiradda fog” status. Ku dhawaad ​​qof kasta oo maanta la factor dhaw raaxadeeda waxa uu aadayo.

Dhibyaraan

Dhinaca kale, wakhti dheer ka hor, Waxaan isku khilaafay Planet Fitness halkaas oo sahlo ahaa seef laba af leh. Waxaan la sheegay in dhaqanka ganacsi si ay u Komishanka Cabashooyinka Consumer (tan iyo dib-u-abaabulan sida Komishanka Qaranka ee Consumer) oo waligood jawaab kama helin. Dulucda arrinta ayaa ah in wakiilka iibka ee Planet Fitness uu been u sheegay aniga iyo saaxiib si aan uga helo komishan / lacag badan jeebkayga.

Waxaan ahay a Discovery koboca xubin ka tirsan oo ku siinaya faa'iidooyin badan, oo ay ku jiraan heerka hoos ku magac Premium – inta badan la xiriira caafimaadka dabcan, maadaama Discovery yahay bixiye Gargaar Caafimaad / Caymis Caafimaad. Si aad u dhigay si fudud, Discovery waa cabsi. Faa'iidooyinka koboca ee dabooli xubin gym oo dheeraad ah waxaa ka mid ah Planet Fitness. Weli waa inaad wax bixiso, calaamo yar oo ah madaxa bannaanaa, si Discovery, xubin jimicsiga. Laakiin, ka dib oo dhan, Waxay rabaan ii ahaan caafimaad qaba, sidaa darteed wax dhib ah kama qabaan inay lug ku yeeshaan inta badan biilka. Laakiin, muuqata, tani waxay ka dhigan Planet Fitness’ wakiilada iibka aan helin komishanka!

Sidaas waxa natiijadan ku sameeya? Natiijadu waxay tahay in wakiilka iibka PF ee i siiyey tiro buunbuuniyo ah “Koboca ku salaysan” xubin. Waxa uu been. Waxa uu markaas i soo wareegto on line ugu dhibcaha qiimo ah buunbuuniyo ah “joogto ah” xubin (haa, waxa uu ahaa dhab ahaan ka badan xitaa xubin joogto ah in lagu qarash gareeyo), dhamaadka ku saabsan 4 iyo 5 jeer sida ugu badan ee xubin ka koboca ku salaysan ee.

Epiphanies

Waqti yar 2011 Waxaan ugu dambeyntii wisened ilaa kharashka aan filanayay in laga bixinta ahaa. Discovery hubiyo in aan noqon doono mid aad u faraxsan oo ku saabsan Buuqa this waxaan ahay. Waxaan la hadlay tababaraha ugu jimicsiga, oo waxaa la ii xaqiijiyay in heshiiska oo dhan waa la burburinayaa lahaa. Waxaan ka mid rabshadaha aan ahay … haddii ay Isboortiga … in Octagon ah … laakiin ka dib markii aan booqashada 5aad Maareeyaha si aad u weydiiso sababta Amarka Debit ah ayaa weli ka dhacaya, waxa uu ii sheegay inuu la yaabay aanan keenay hub ila soo booqato. Ka dib markii a booqashooyin dheeraad ah oo yar, Maareeyaha ayaa dhab ahaan ka tagay Planet Fitness oo ii sharxay in “heshiis” wuxuu udhaxeeyey aniga iyo Madaxa Xafiiska iyo in jimicsiga maxaliga ah, muuqata howlgal taaso-style ah, yar si ay u lahayn oo ku saabsan in ama aan u la tirtiri laga yaabaa. Haddii Head Office ayaa sheegay inaysan jirin, nasiib adag.

Halkaan marka la joogo waan lumiyay. Waxaan lahaa bangigeyga inuu dhigo joojiyo amarrada debit ah. Waxay ahayd schlep weyn: Waxaan ku qasbanaaday inaan la xiriiro bangiga bil kasta maxaa yeelay sharraxaadda amarka lacag bixinta ayaa is beddeli doonta weligeed waxyar. Waxay sidoo kale igu kacday wax yar labadii biloodba mar “celiso” xannibaadda adeegga. Anigu ma caawin karo, laakiin qabaa nidaamka banki taageertaa tibaaxaha joogto ah laakiin shaqaalaha daruuri ma aha in la ogaado sida loo isticmaalo.

Farsamo ahaan wali waxaan sugaya CCC si ay iigu soo noqoto (Marnaba ma aysan dhicin – iyo dabcan ay dib-u-abaabulan sida kor ku xusan si kiiska ay u badan tahay iyada oo dildilaaca ku dhacay). Dabcan, by dhibic in PF ayaa sidoo kale doonayay in uu ii madow maxaa yeelay, ma bixinta!

Hero lama filaanka

Xusuuso A qasay.Shacabka uu arinka ka qabo Discovery (Waxaan qabaa inaan u yeedhay oo ku saabsan booqashada dhakhtarka ilkaha) keentay in callback ah mid ka mid ah Discovery ee wakiilada. Kadibna waxay i weydiiyay in lagu qeexo dhibaatada, si faahfaahsan oo qoraal ah, inay si fiican u sharax ka aragti wixii dhacay. Waxaan ku waajib ah. Waxaa soo baxday waan ku qummanaa ayuu iyaga ku saabsan oo aan “aad u faraxsan” ku saabsan. Dhab ahaantii ay run ahaantii ma jeclaan. Qiyaastii saddex toddobaad kadib, Planet Fitness ii soo celin in FULL ee dhammaan lacagaha in weli la bixiyo iyaga.

Discovery waa Awesome. 🙂

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Axad, Ogosto 04th, 2013 | Qoraa:

Waxaan lahaa cilad koronto oo saameyn ku yeelatay adeegeyga weyn md DUUL diyaarin. Halkii loo oggolaan lahaa in adeegu guud ahaan hoos u dhaco inta laga sugayo inuu dhammaystiro fsck, Waxaan haystay boot iyada oo aan lahayn saf ballaaran sidaa darteed waxaan ku maamuli lahaa fsck gacanta.

Si kastaba ha noqotee, markii aan gacanta ku waday waxaan ogaaday inaanan hayn wado aan ku ogaado inta ay le'eg tahay iyo muddada ay qaadanayso in la dhammaystiro. Tani waxay si gaar ah dhibaato ugu tahay noocyo badan. In yar oo aan raadinayay ayaan helay cirifka ku darida cabirka -C markii aad wacayso fsck. Tan kama aanan helin dukumiintiyada si kastaba ha ahaatee: fsck –Caawinaad ma muujin ikhtiyaar noocaas ah.

Ikhtiyaarku wuxuu noqdaa mid gaar u leh ext4, oo markaa waxay muujineysaa bar horumarineed oo si fiican u shaqeynaya oo leh tilmaame boqolkiiba. Si aad u hesho macluumaadka, halkii “fsck –I caawi” ama “nin fsck”, waa inaad ku dartaa “fsck.ext4 –I caawi” ama “nin fsck.ext4”. 🙂

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Axad, Ogosto 04th, 2013 | Qoraa:

Taariikhda

Inbadan ayaa isbadalay tan iyo markii ugu dambeysay ee aan sheego server shaqsiyeed – waxay ku kortay boodbooyin iyo soohdin (waxay hadda leedahay 7TB md RAID6) oo mar dhow ayaa dib loo dhisay iyadoo Ubuntu Server.

Gawaarida marna qalad ma ahayn. Arch Linux horey wax badan buu iiga baray Linux (oo waan kusii wadi doonaa inaan ku sameeyo desktop-kayga kale). Laakiin Arch xaqiiqdii waxay u baahan tahay waqti iyo feejignaan ka badan intii aan jeclaan lahaa inaan ku qaato serverka. Fikrad ahaan waxaan jeclaan lahaa inaan awoodo inaan iska iloobo adeegaha in yar illaa iimayl xusuusin ah uu dhaho “a … waxaa jira laba casriyeyn ah oo ay tahay inaad fiiriso, saaxiib.”

Meel bannaan maahan – mana aha mid bannaan

Fursadda aan ugu haajiro Ubuntu waxay ahayd xaqiiqda oo ah inaan ka dhammaaday SATA dekedaha, dekedaha loo baahan yahay inay ku xirmaan darawallada adag kombiyuutarka intiisa kale – in soo diyaarinta 7TB RAID ay isticmaasho dekedo badan! Xitaa waan bixiyay aad duug ah 200GB disk adag maadaama ay qaadatay mid ka mid ah dekedahaas. Waxaan sidoo kale uga digay qaataha in diskiga SMART kormeerku wuxuu muujiyey in aan lagu kalsoonaan karin. Sida ku-meel-gaadhka ku-meel-gaadhka ah ee la'aanta dekeddaha SATA, Xitaa waxaan u haajiray OS-ka adeegaha illaa afar xirmo oo USB ah oo ku jira md RAID1. Waali. waan ogahay. Aad uma aanan faraxsanayn xawaaraha. Waxaan go aansaday inaan baxo oo aan iibsado darawal adag oo la isku halleyn karo iyo kaarka ballaarinta SATA si aan ula socdo.

Qeybinta aasaasiga ah ee 'Arch server' waxay isticmaaleysay qiyaastii 7GB disk ah. Qeyb weyn oo ka mid ah taas ayaa ahayd a isdhaafsasho faylka, xogta keydsan iyo haddii kale faylal kaladuwan ama aan loo baahnayn. Guud ahaan cabirka dhabta ah ee OS, ay ka mid yihiin /guriga galka, wuxuu ahaa oo keliya qiyaastii 2GB. Tani waxay igu kaliftay inaan fiiriyo super-soon SSD wadid, ka fikirida mid ka yar in uusan sidaa qaali u ahayn. Waxaa ii soo baxday in kan ugu raqiisan ee aan ahayn SSD-ka ee aan runtii ku heli lahaa qiime dheeraad ah marka loo eego mid ka mid ah SSD-yadaas yar yar. Haa aniga. 🙂

Xulasho? Woah?!

Xulashada OS, Waxaan horey u go’aansaday inaysan Arch noqon doonin. Dhamaan qeybiyeyaasha kale ee caanka ah, Waxaan aad u aqaan Ubuntu iyo CentOS. Fedora sidoo kale waxay ahayd macquul – laakiin si dhab ah ugama aanan fakarin wali server. Ubuntu ayaa ku guuleysatay wareegga.

Go’aanka xiga ee aan qaadan lahaa aniga iguma soo dhicin ilaa Ubilence (Saaxir rakibaadda Ubuntu) ayaa iga weydiisay: Sida loo dejiyo xijaab.

Waxaan ku cusbaa isticmaalka SSD-ka Linux – Waxaan si fiican uga warqabaa khaladaadka jira ee aanan sida saxda ah u isticmaalin, badanaa waxay ugu wacan tahay halistooda cimri dherer xumo haddii si qaldan loo adeegsado.

Ma aanan dooneynin inaan isticmaalo qayb isku beddel ah. Waxaan qorsheynayaa kor u qaadista server-ka hooyada / CPU / Memory-ka ee aan aad ugu fogeyn mustaqbalka. Iyada oo ku saleysan taas ayaan go'aansaday inaan ku beddelanayo faylka isku-beddelka md RAID-da jirta. Isweydaarsigu si gaar ah uma noqon doono mid deg deg ah laakiin ujeedadiisa kaliya ayaa noqon doonta munaasabadaas dhifka ah marka wax khaldamaan oo xusuusta aan la helin.

Tani waxay markaa iga tagtay inaan siiyo wadada xididka 60GB buuxa ee ka mid ah Intel 330 SSD. Waxaan ka fiirsaday kala tag / guri laakiin waxay umuuqatay wax aan micno lahayn, la siiyay inta yar ee la isticmaali jiray waagii hore. Waxaan marka hore qotomiyey xijaab leh LVM – wax aan dhawaanahan sameynayay markasta oo aan dejiyo sanduuq Linux ah (run ahaantii, ma jirto wax cudurdaar ah oo aan loo isticmaalin LVM). Markay gaadhay qaybtii aan ku habayn lahaa nidaamka faylasha, Waxaan dhajiyay hoos-u-dhaca oo si xamaasad leh u xushay ext4. Kadib waxaan ku arkay btrfs isla liistada. Sudhan!!

Laakiin maxay tahay?

Btrfs (“subag-eff-ess”, “fiican-eff-ess”, “shinni-geed-eff-ess”, ama wax kastoo aad ujeceshahay maalinta) waa nidaam cusub oo faylal ah oo loo soo saaray Linux’ awoodaha faylasha ee nidaamka saxda ah ee nidaamka casriga ah. Nidaamka faylasha ee jira ee King-of-the-Hill, “dheeraad ah” (nooca hada la yiraahdo ext4) waa wax fiican – laakiin waa xaddidan tahay, ku xayiran muuqaal hore (ka fikir nooc cusub F22 Raptor vs. ah F4 Phantom oo leh isku day nus kaftan ah oo lagu hagaajinayo u dhigma) umana badna inay awood u yeelan karto inay muddo dheer la tartanto nidaamyada faylasha cusub ee Enterprise sida Oracle’s ZFS. Btrfs wali waddo dheer ayaa loo hayaa welina waxaa loo arkaa tijaabo (waxay kuxirantahay qofka aad weydiiso iyo astaamaha aad ubaahantahay). Kuwo badan waxay u tixgeliyaan inay xasilloon tahay isticmaalka aasaasiga ah – laakiin cidina ma samaynayso dammaanad qaad. Iyo, Dabcan, qof walba wuxuu dhahayaa sameyso oo tijaabiyo keyd!

Mooooooo

Farqiga ugu aasaasiga ah ee u dhexeeya ext iyo btrfs ayaa ah in btrfs-ku uu yahay a “CoW” ama “Nuqul ku qor” nidaamka faylasha. Tani waxay ka dhigan tahay in xogta aan si dhab ah si ula kac ah dib loogu qoro gudaha nidaamka faylasha. Haddii aad u qorto isbeddel feyl, btrfs waxay kuu qori doonaan isbeddeladaada meel cusub oo ku saabsan warbaahinta jirka waxayna cusbooneysiin doonaan tilmaamayaasha gudaha si ay u tixraacaan goobta cusub. Btrfs waxay tallaabo dheeri ah u qaadaysaa tilmaamayaashaas gudaha ah (loo yaqaan metadata) yihiin sidoo kale CoW. Noocyadii hore ee ext ayaa si fudud dib loogu qori lahaa xogta. Ext4 waxay isticmaali doontaa Joornaal si loo hubiyo in musuqmaasuqu uusan dhici doonin haddii fiilada AC laga siibto xilliga ugu habboon. Joornaalku wuxuu ku soo baxayaa tiro tallaabooyin la mid ah oo loo baahan yahay si loo cusbooneysiiyo xogta. Iyada oo leh SSD, qalabka hoose wuxuu ku shaqeeyaa nidaam la mid ah CoW iyadoon loo eegin nooca faylasha aad isticmaaleysid. This is because SSD drives cannot actually overwrite datathey have to copy the data (with your changes) to a new location and then erase the old block entirely. An optimisation in this area is that an SSD might not even erase the old block but rather simply make a note to erase the block at a later time when things aren’t so busy. The end result is that SSD drives fit very well with a CoW filesystem and don’t perform as well with non-CoW filesystems.

To make matters interesting, CoW in the filesystem easily goes hand in hand with a feature called deduplication. This allows two (or more) identical blocks of data to be stored using only a single copy, saving space. With CoW, if a deduplicated file is modified, the separate twin won’t be affected as the modified file’s data will have been written to a different physical block.

CoW in turn makes snapshotting relatively easy to implement. When a snapshot is made the system merely records the new snapshot as being a duplication of all data and metadata within the volume. With CoW, when changes are made, the snapshot’s data stays intact, and a consistent view of the filesystem’s status at the time the snapshot was made can be maintained.

A new friend

With the above in mind, especially as Ubuntu has made btrfs available as an install-time option, I figured it would be a good time to dive into btrfs and explore a little. 🙂

Qaybta 2 coming soon

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Isniinta, October 29th, 2012 | Qoraa:

It appears that, in infinite wisdom, Google have a security feature that can block an application from accessing or using your google account. I can see how this might be a problem for Google’s users, in particular their GTalk iyo Gmail users. In my case it was Pidgin having an issue with the Jabber adeegga (which is technically part of GTalk). I found the solution after a little digging. I was surprised at how old the issue was and how long this feature has existed!

To unlock the account and get your application online, use Google’s Captcha page here.

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