Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Qaybta 1 – Hordhac – Dejinta safafka Simple (Tani post)
  • Qaybta 2 – Kalsoonaan karo Aqoonsiga gaadiidka – Dejinta Mangle Rules (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 3 – Mudnaanta iyo XUDUUDDA – Dejinta Geedaha safka (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 4 – Monitoring Usage – Ayaal safafka – Limiting Abusive Devices (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 5 – ??? Faa'iido ???

Hordhac

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Caadi ahaan qofna ma oga sababta, kuwaas oo, ama waxa keenaya dhibaatada – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Mararka qaarkood waxa ISP ee – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “sites / dhismaha” Isticmaalka in QoS si ay u maareeyaan isku xirnaanta Internet ay. Mid ka mid ah waa goobta shaqada, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – sida caadiga ah oo kaliya la xidhiidha guri, laakiin haddii kale, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-Nin (oo sii kordhaya) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS iyo

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, sida DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Xalin lahaayeen, oo sidaas. Inta badan oo ka mid ah caadi ahaan u baahan tahay in aad qabto server oo dheeraad ah oo ku saabsan been ama router ah hardware socon. Mikrotik iibiya RouterBoards in ay leeyihiin RouterOS builtin – oo ay raqiis yihiin.

My waayo-aragnimo la router ugu horrayn la Cisco iyo MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Riddaa ee NetEnforcer / NetXplorer nidaamyada iyo MikroTik. The qalabka MikroTik ugu caansan ee aan waayo-aragnimo (aan ahayn qalabka ay mudada dheer kala duwan oo heegan ah wireless) ayaa ay rb750 (version cusub magacaabay “hEX“) iyo rb950-looxyadii ku salaysan. Waxay leeyihiin kuwo kale oo badan available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Waxaan u muuqdaan in lagu qeexo qalabka MikroTik ee sida “90% muuqaalada ee 10% kharashka”. Sida buugan waxaa looga jeedo ugu horayn SME isticmaalka Home /, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, la soco in router MikroTik sameeyo ma typically include DSL modems, Saasuuna kuu qalabka jira waa caadi ahaan weli loo baahan yahay. Fiiro gaar ah sidoo kale in tani ay tahay ma tutorial ah oo ku saabsan qalab MikroTik ah u fidinno ka xoq. Waxaa jira badan oo Hanuuniyaa heli karaa online for in mar hore.

Aragtida dhaqan – Tallaabooyinkii ugu horeeyay ee

Si aad qotomisay QoS sax ah, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Guud ahaan xawaaraha xiriir
  • Sidee badan oo dadka isticmaala / qalabka la isticmaalayo doonaa xiriir
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Si loo gaaro dushiisa xagga tusaalooyinka aan, Waxaan u qaadan doonaa waxyaabaha soo socda:

  • MikroTik ayaa lagu wadaa la qaabeynta shabakadda default meesha network maxalliga ah waa 192.168.88.0/24 iyo internet-ka waxaa la siiyaa via PPPoE.
  • Xawaaraha la xidhiidha waxa ay tahay 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps xawaaraha download; 2 Mbps xawaaraha Upload)
  • Waxaa jiri doona 5 users leh sida ugu badan 15 qalab (kombiyuutarada badan / kiniinno / telefoonada gacanta / WiFi iwm)
  • Downloads caadiga ah u baahan mudnaan sare la dhex laakiin low-mudnaanta leh Telcom
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • No dadka isticmaala ay tahay in la kala mudnaan badan kuwa kale

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Safka Simple.

Waxaan sameeyay script gaaban oo aan u badbaadiyey on qalabka MikroTik aan u qotomiyey safafka fudud. Waana sidan soo socota:

:x ka 1 si ay u 254 yeela ={
 /saf fudud magaca add ="internet-usage- $ x" dst ="pppoe" max-xadka = 1900k / 9500k target ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Waa maxay kor ku yaal aanu waa xadka xawaaraha ugu badan ee qof kasta oo qalab isticmaali karto si aad “1900k” (1.9Mb) geliyaan iyo “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Notes:

  • Sababta sababta xadka max yihiin 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Tusaale ahaan, la 100 dadka isticmaala adeegga 20MB waxaan laga yaabaa in xadka si 15Mb dhigay ama xataa yar sida 1Mb. Tani waxay ku xiran yahay sida “xadgudub” users yihiin iyo, sida inaad ogaatid meesha iyo sida xadgudub badan waxay dhacdaa, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Horgalaha “internet-isticmaalka” in dhimaya magaca laga beddeli karaa. Sida caadiga ah waan kuwaas oo qarka u saaran inuu tixraac magaca goobta. Tusaale ahaan, with premises named “Alfa” iyo “beta”, Waxaan caadi ahaan gelin doonaa “internet-Alfa” iyo “internet-beta”. Taasi waxay gacan ka dabiicadda kala dhexeeya goobaha.
  • Halbeegga dst waxay leedahay “pppoe” tusaale ahaan. Tani waa in la bedelay magaca interface that provides the Internet connection.

Hubi in aad u astaysto script ah in ay haboontahay in ay aad u qaabeynta. Save script in ay MikroTik ah iyo waxa maamula – ama si toos ah paste ku MikroTik ee terminal si ay u soo dejiyaan.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle Xeerarka. Sharciyadan waa u adeega si ay u aqoonsadaan / kala saaraan gaadiidka network si ay u sameeyaan QoS qaadhaan-grained suurto gal.

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