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Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Qaybta 1 – Hordhac – Dejinta safafka Simple (Tani post)
  • Qaybta 2 – Kalsoonaan karo Aqoonsiga gaadiidka – Dejinta Mangle Rules (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 3 – Mudnaanta iyo XUDUUDDA – Dejinta Geedaha safka (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 4 – Monitoring Usage – Ayaal safafka – Limiting Abusive Devices (Imaatinka Soon TM)
  • Qaybta 5 – ??? Faa'iido ???

Hordhac

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Caadi ahaan qofna ma oga sababta, kuwaas oo, ama waxa keenaya dhibaatada – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Mararka qaarkood waxa ISP ee – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “sites / dhismaha” Isticmaalka in QoS si ay u maareeyaan isku xirnaanta Internet ay. Mid ka mid ah waa goobta shaqada, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – sida caadiga ah oo kaliya la xidhiidha guri, laakiin haddii kale, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-Nin (oo sii kordhaya) LAN. Fun. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS iyo

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, sida DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Xalin lahaayeen, oo sidaas. Inta badan oo ka mid ah caadi ahaan u baahan tahay in aad qabto server oo dheeraad ah oo ku saabsan been ama router ah hardware socon. Mikrotik iibiya RouterBoards in ay leeyihiin RouterOS builtin – oo ay raqiis yihiin.

My waayo-aragnimo la router ugu horrayn la Cisco iyo MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Riddaa ee NetEnforcer / NetXplorer nidaamyada iyo MikroTik. The qalabka MikroTik ugu caansan ee aan waayo-aragnimo (aan ahayn qalabka ay mudada dheer kala duwan oo heegan ah wireless) ayaa ay rb750 (version cusub magacaabay “hEX“) iyo rb950-looxyadii ku salaysan. Waxay leeyihiin kuwo kale oo badan available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Waxaan u muuqdaan in lagu qeexo qalabka MikroTik ee sida “90% muuqaalada ee 10% kharashka”. Sida buugan waxaa looga jeedo ugu horayn SME isticmaalka Home /, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, la soco in router MikroTik sameeyo ma typically include DSL modems, Saasuuna kuu qalabka jira waa caadi ahaan weli loo baahan yahay. Fiiro gaar ah sidoo kale in tani ay tahay ma tutorial ah oo ku saabsan qalab MikroTik ah u fidinno ka xoq. Waxaa jira badan oo Hanuuniyaa heli karaa online for in mar hore.

Aragtida dhaqan – Tallaabooyinkii ugu horeeyay ee

Si aad qotomisay QoS sax ah, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Guud ahaan xawaaraha xiriir
  • Sidee badan oo dadka isticmaala / qalabka la isticmaalayo doonaa xiriir
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Si loo gaaro dushiisa xagga tusaalooyinka aan, Waxaan u qaadan doonaa waxyaabaha soo socda:

  • MikroTik ayaa lagu wadaa la qaabeynta shabakadda default meesha network maxalliga ah waa 192.168.88.0/24 iyo internet-ka waxaa la siiyaa via PPPoE.
  • Xawaaraha la xidhiidha waxa ay tahay 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps xawaaraha download; 2 Mbps xawaaraha Upload)
  • Waxaa jiri doona 5 users leh sida ugu badan 15 qalab (kombiyuutarada badan / kiniinno / telefoonada gacanta / WiFi iwm)
  • Downloads caadiga ah u baahan mudnaan sare la dhex laakiin low-mudnaanta leh Telcom
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • No dadka isticmaala ay tahay in la kala mudnaan badan kuwa kale

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Safka Simple.

Waxaan sameeyay script gaaban oo aan u badbaadiyey on qalabka MikroTik aan u qotomiyey safafka fudud. Waana sidan soo socota:

:x ka 1 si ay u 254 yeela ={
 /saf fudud magaca add ="internet-usage- $ x" dst ="pppoe" max-xadka = 1900k / 9500k target ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Waa maxay kor ku yaal aanu waa xadka xawaaraha ugu badan ee qof kasta oo qalab isticmaali karto si aad “1900k” (1.9Mb) geliyaan iyo “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Notes:

  • Sababta sababta xadka max yihiin 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Tusaale ahaan, la 100 dadka isticmaala adeegga 20MB waxaan laga yaabaa in xadka si 15Mb dhigay ama xataa yar sida 1Mb. Tani waxay ku xiran yahay sida “xadgudub” users yihiin iyo, sida inaad ogaatid meesha iyo sida xadgudub badan waxay dhacdaa, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Horgalaha “internet-isticmaalka” in dhimaya magaca laga beddeli karaa. Sida caadiga ah waan kuwaas oo qarka u saaran inuu tixraac magaca goobta. Tusaale ahaan, with premises named “Alfa” iyo “beta”, Waxaan caadi ahaan gelin doonaa “internet-Alfa” iyo “internet-beta”. Taasi waxay gacan ka dabiicadda kala dhexeeya goobaha.
  • Halbeegga dst waxay leedahay “pppoe” tusaale ahaan. Tani waa in la bedelay magaca interface that provides the Internet connection.

Hubi in aad u astaysto script ah in ay haboontahay in ay aad u qaabeynta. Save script in ay MikroTik ah iyo waxa maamula – ama si toos ah paste ku MikroTik ee terminal si ay u soo dejiyaan.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Mangle Xeerarka. Sharciyadan waa u adeega si ay u aqoonsadaan / kala saaraan gaadiidka network si ay u sameeyaan QoS qaadhaan-grained suurto gal.

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Category: random  | Leave a Comment
Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:

Privacy, Waqtiga, Money

Ma jecli amar debit aadan. Waligey ma jeclaa fikradda ah in cidda kale awoodno, at will, qaadan ku dhawaad ​​lacag kasta oo aan lacag (iyo sidoo kale … wax kasta oo la heli karo). Shaqaalahan oo tilmaamay arrinta la MTN laga hortagi lahaa waxaan la isticmaalayo si debit ah. Waxaa laga yaabaa in ay “raaxadeeda” factor ma jiro wax xun.

Waxaan u malaynayaa su'aasha ceshadka halkan waa haddii aad rabto in aad nolasha iyo aamini karaan hay'adaha (kiiskan oo aad lacag) – ama haddii aad iyaga aan la aamini karin oo diyaar u yihiin inay iska iloobaan in sahlo. In kiiskeyga, inkastoo aan weli wax warsataan nolasha, Waxaan bartay habka ugu adag la MTN in laab noqon kartaa xanibayo in aad aduunka ugu xiran hoos u dhigay “jasiiradda fog” status. Ku dhawaad ​​qof kasta oo maanta la factor dhaw raaxadeeda waxa uu aadayo.

Dhibyaraan

Dhinaca kale, wakhti dheer ka hor, I had a dispute with Planet Fitness halkaas oo sahlo ahaa seef laba af leh. Waxaan la sheegay in dhaqanka ganacsi si ay u Komishanka Cabashooyinka Consumer (tan iyo dib-u-abaabulan sida Komishanka Qaranka ee Consumer) and never got feedback from them. The gist of the issue is that Planet Fitness’s sales agent lied to me and a friend in order to get more commission/money out of my pocket.

Waxaan ahay a Discovery koboca xubin ka tirsan oo ku siinaya faa'iidooyin badan, oo ay ku jiraan heerka hoos ku magac Premium – inta badan la xiriira caafimaadka dabcan, as Discovery is a Medical Aid/Health Insurance provider. Si aad u dhigay si fudud, Discovery waa cabsi. Faa'iidooyinka koboca ee dabooli xubin gym oo dheeraad ah waxaa ka mid ah Planet Fitness. You still have to pay something, calaamo yar oo ah madaxa bannaanaa, si Discovery, xubin jimicsiga. Laakiin, ka dib oo dhan, Waxay rabaan ii ahaan caafimaad qaba, so they don’t mind footing the bulk of the bill. Laakiin, muuqata, tani waxay ka dhigan Planet Fitness’ wakiilada iibka aan helin komishanka!

Sidaas waxa natiijadan ku sameeya? Natiijadu waxay tahay in wakiilka iibka PF ee i siiyey tiro buunbuuniyo ah “Koboca ku salaysan” xubin. Waxa uu been. Waxa uu markaas i soo wareegto on line ugu dhibcaha qiimo ah buunbuuniyo ah “joogto ah” xubin (haa, waxa uu ahaa dhab ahaan ka badan xitaa xubin joogto ah in lagu qarash gareeyo), ending up about 4 iyo 5 jeer sida ugu badan ee xubin ka koboca ku salaysan ee.

Epiphanies

Some time in 2011 Waxaan ugu dambeyntii wisened ilaa kharashka aan filanayay in laga bixinta ahaa. Discovery hubiyo in aan noqon doono mid aad u faraxsan oo ku saabsan Buuqa this waxaan ahay. Waxaan la hadlay tababaraha ugu jimicsiga, oo waxaa la ii xaqiijiyay in heshiiska oo dhan waa la burburinayaa lahaa. Waxaan ka mid rabshadaha aan ahay … haddii ay Isboortiga … in Octagon ah … laakiin ka dib markii aan booqashada 5aad Maareeyaha si aad u weydiiso sababta Amarka Debit ah ayaa weli ka dhacaya, waxa uu ii sheegay inuu la yaabay aanan keenay hub ila soo booqato. Ka dib markii a booqashooyin dheeraad ah oo yar, Maareeyaha ayaa dhab ahaan ka tagay Planet Fitness oo ii sharxay in “heshiis” was between myself and Head Office and that the local gym, muuqata howlgal taaso-style ah, yar si ay u lahayn oo ku saabsan in ama aan u la tirtiri laga yaabaa. Haddii Head Office ayaa sheegay inaysan jirin, nasiib adag.

By this point I’d lost it. I had my bank put a joojiyo amarrada debit ah. It was a huge schlep: I had to contact the bank every month because the debit order descriptions would change ever so slightly. It also cost me a little every couple of months to “celiso” the blocking adeegga. Anigu ma caawin karo, laakiin qabaa nidaamka banki taageertaa tibaaxaha joogto ah laakiin shaqaalaha daruuri ma aha in la ogaado sida loo isticmaalo.

Technically I’m still waiting on the CCC to get back to me (Marnaba ma aysan dhicin – iyo dabcan ay dib-u-abaabulan sida kor ku xusan si kiiska ay u badan tahay iyada oo dildilaaca ku dhacay). Dabcan, by dhibic in PF ayaa sidoo kale doonayay in uu ii madow maxaa yeelay, ma bixinta!

Hero lama filaanka

Xusuuso A qasay.Shacabka uu arinka ka qabo Discovery (Waxaan qabaa inaan u yeedhay oo ku saabsan booqashada dhakhtarka ilkaha) keentay in callback ah mid ka mid ah Discovery ee wakiilada. Kadibna waxay i weydiiyay in lagu qeexo dhibaatada, si faahfaahsan oo qoraal ah, inay si fiican u sharax ka aragti wixii dhacay. Waxaan ku waajib ah. Waxaa soo baxday waan ku qummanaa ayuu iyaga ku saabsan oo aan “aad u faraxsan” ku saabsan. Dhab ahaantii ay run ahaantii ma jeclaan. About three weeks later, Planet Fitness ii soo celin in FULL ee dhammaan lacagaha in weli la bixiyo iyaga.

Discovery waa Awesome. 🙂

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Monday, October 29th, 2012 | Author:

It appears that, in infinite wisdom, Google have a security feature that can block an application from accessing or using your google account. I can see how this might be a problem for Google’s users, in particular their GTalk iyo Gmail users. In my case it was Pidgin having an issue with the Jabber adeegga (which is technically part of GTalk). I found the solution after a little digging. I was surprised at how old the issue was and how long this feature has existed!

To unlock the account and get your application online, use Google’s Captcha page here.

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Wednesday, June 08th, 2011 | Author:

I did a full update on my personal server at home as one is bound to do, often, la Arch. It’s a headless server so there’s always that slight anxiety concerning whether or not I have to connect a keyboard/monitor when things don’t just work. The wish was not granted today:

Arch Linux started booting up normally and init starts runlevel 3, the where it stats loading daemons:

:: Adjusting Hardware Clock [Busy]

And that’s where it just hangs. No further. Ctrl+Alt+Del works, single user mode works, but standard runlevel 3 will not. It turns out that the cause is a bug between hwclock and the server’s hardware clock. The backup battery on the motherboard, powering the CMOS memory and, subsequently, the hardware clock, is dead. While the system is powered up the battery isn’t neededhowever since the hardware clock knows it has reset, it won’t tick until we tell it what the time is. Counter to this is that when hwclock starts, it’s waiting for a clock tick in order for it to know if the hardware clock’s rate of progress is good. Catch 22.

The solution in my case was to go into single user mode where I could disable hwclock in /etc/rc.conf. I’ve been using ntpd to keep the system time in sync which works just fine. I’m not too bothered with whether or not the hardware clock is rightI just want the live system’s clock to be right. It will still be a good idea to get a replacement battery since, until that’s done, every time the server boots it will think its back in 1997.

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Category: random  | One Comment
Friday, September 24th, 2010 | Author:

The upgrade to WordPress 3 was long overdue (as are many draft articles). Surprisingly, nothing looks different since the upgrade has been completed, though I also would not be surprised if I’ve missed an important plugin breakage.

I’ll be spending a day this weekend solely on polishing the site and finishing up some articles. You have something to look forward to. 🙂

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