Tag-Archive for » backup «

Sabti, 21-ka Febraayo, 2009 | Qoraa:

Noocyada dukumiintiga ee cusub Xafiiska 2007 waxay siisay qaar ka mid ah martigaliyayaasha webka dhibaatooyin markay macaamiishooda rabaan inay siiyaan dukumiintiyo loogu soo dejisto. Inta badan, dukumintiyada waxaa bixiya adeegaha shabakada sida “qoraal / html” taas oo markaa loo bixiyo tan oo ah qashin shaashadda isticmaalaha websaydhka.

Habka ugu fiican ee tan lagu xallin karo waa in lagu daro dhammaan MIME noocyada qaabeynta ugu weyn ee serverka. IIS7 for Windows horeyba waxay u leeyihiin noocyadan MIME si sax ah ayaa loo dejiyay. IIS6 iyo IIS5 waxay u baahan yihiin noocyada MIME in lagu daro, sida laga yaabaa Apache rakibidda hore. Wixii Apache, sidoo kale waxaa jira shaqo ka shaqeysiin milkiilaha domain shaqsi ah inuu ku daro noocyada mime via Apache’s .htaccess faylka.

IIS 6 Nooca MIME ku darista (ee Maamulaha Server)

Kahor intaan tan la samayn, hubi in adeegahaaga sidoo kale loo dejiyay inuu u oggolaado sixitaanka metabase toos ah:

  1. Xamuul Maamulaha IIS: Bilow -> Ra, “inetmgr” -> [OK]
  2. Midig u guji “server” oo guji “Properties”
  3. Gudaha “Adeegyada Macluumaadka Internetka” tab (badiyaa tabka keliya), hubi in “Enkartaan Direct Metabase Edit” sanduuqa ayaa la hubiyaa.
  4. Click [OK]

Hubso inaad dib u habeynta IIS (here loogu talagalay IIS5) ka hor. Ma qaadi doono wax masuuliyad ah maamul jabinaya adeegeisa. Waxaan haystaa sabab aan ku rumaysto tan laga yaabaa sidoo kale ka shaqee IIS5 si kastaba ha ahaatee waxaan haystaa sabab aad u badan oo aan ku rumaysan karo inay khaladaad badan bixin karto. Haddii ay tahay IIS5 / Windows 2000 admin wuxuu diyaar u yahay inuu tan ii tijaabiyo ka dib markii aan taageeray qaabeyntaada fadlan ii soo sheeg natiijooyinka.

Nuqul qoraalka soo socda u gal feyl la yiraahdo msoff07-addmime.vbs oo fuliya mar ka amraya taliska adigoo garaacaya qoraal msoff07-addmime.vbs oo riixaya gala. Haddii aad maamusho wax ka badan hal jeer, noocyada MIME ayaa lagu dari doonaa wakhti kasta waxaadna lahaan doontaa qoraallo badan oo isku mid ah:

'Qoraalkani wuxuu ku darayaa Xafiiska lagama maarmaanka ah 2007 Noocyada MIME ee IIS 6 Server.
'Inaad adeegsato qoraalkan, kaliya laba-guji ama ka dhaqan khad amarka ah.
'Ku socodsiinta qoraalkan dhowr jeer waxay keeneysaa galitaanno badan oo ka mid ah
'IIS MimeMap marka waa inaadan socodsiin wax ka badan hal jeer.
'Waxaa laga beddelay http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms752346.aspx
 
Miisaan MimeMapObj, MimeMapArray, MimeTypesToAddArray, WshShell, oExec
Const ADS_PROPERTY_UPDATE = 2 
 
Calan noocyada MIME lagu daro
MimeTypesToAddArray = Diyaarin(".docm", "application/vnd.ms-word.document.macroEnabled.12", _
".docx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document", _
".dotm", "application/vnd.ms-word.template.macroEnabled.12", _
".dotx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.template", _
".potm", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.template.macroEnabled.12", _
".potx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.template", _
".ppam", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.addin.macroEnabled.12", _
".ppsm", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slideshow.macroEnabled.12", _
".ppsx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow", _
".pptm", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12", _
".pptx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation", _
".sldm", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slide.macroEnabled.12", _
".sldx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slide", _
".xlam", "application/vnd.ms-excel.addin.macroEnabled.12", _
".xlsb", "application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.binary.macroEnabled.12", _
".xlsm", "application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.macroEnabled.12", _
".xlsx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet", _
".xltm", "application/vnd.ms-excel.template.macroEnabled.12", _
".xltx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.template") 
 
Soo qaado shayga mimemap-ka
Deji MimeMapObj = GetObject("IIS://LocalHost / MimeMap")
 
'Wac AddMimeType nooc kasta oo kordhin ah / nooc MIME ah
Wixii miiska = 0 si ay u UBound(MimeTypesToAddArray) Tallaabada 2
    AddMimeType MimeTypesToAddArray(miiska), MimeTypesToAddArray(miiska+1)
Xiga
 
Abuur shey Shell
Deji WshShell = Abuuritaan("WScript.Shell")
 
'Jooji oo Bilow Adeegga IIS
Deji oExec = WshShell.Ful("net stop w3svc")
Samee Halka oExec.Xaaladda = 0
    WScript.Hurdo 100
Loop
 
Deji oExec = WshShell.Ful("net start w3svc")
Samee Halka oExec.Xaaladda = 0
    WScript.Hurdo 100
Loop
 
Deji oExec = Waxba
 
Xaaladda uga warbixi isticmaalaha
WScript.Echo "Microsoft Office 2007 Dukumentiyada noocyada MIME ayaa la diiwaangeliyey."
 
'AddMimeType Sub
Sub AddMimeType (Dheeraad ah, MType)
 
    'Khariidadaha ka soo qaado guriga MimeMap.
    MimeMapArray = MimeMapObj.GetEx("MimeMap") 
 
    'Ku dar khariidad cusub.
    i = UBound(MimeMapArray) + 1
    Redim Kaydso MimeMapArray(i)
    Deji MimeMapArray(i) = Abuuritaan("MimeMap")
    MimeMapArray(i).Kordhin = Dheeraad ah
    MimeMapArray(i).Nooca = MType
    MimeMapObj.PutEx ADS_PROPERTY_UPDATE, "MimeMap", MimeMapArray
    MimeMapObj.SetInfo
 
Dhammaad Sub

Apache MIME ku darista nooca (ee Maamulaha Server)

Apache waxay ku kaydisaa noocyadeeda MIME feyl caadi ahaan ku yaal $nooca loo yaqaan 'installpath / conf / mime.types. Eeg mod_mime dukumiinti wixii faahfaahin ah ee ku saabsan sida ay u shaqeyso. Arch Linux rakibto noocyadeeda MIME at /iwm / httpd / conf / mime.types iyo Isbarbar dhigga Plesk ku rakibto /usr / maxaliga / psa / admin / conf / mime.types. Waxaa laga yaabaa in qeybintaada ay ku hayso meel kale, markaa raadso noocyada faylka adoo ordaya hel noocyada mime.

Kudar khadadka soo socda feylkaaga mime.types:

application/vnd.ms-word.document.macroEnabled.12                          docm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document   docx
application/vnd.ms-word.template.macroEnabled.12                          dotm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.template   dotx
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.template.macroEnabled.12                    potm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.template     potx
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.addin.macroEnabled.12                       ppam
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slideshow.macroEnabled.12                   ppsm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow    ppsx
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12                pptm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation pptx
application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slide.macroEnabled.12                       sldm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slide        sldx
application/vnd.ms-excel.addin.macroEnabled.12                            xlam
application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.binary.macroEnabled.12                     xlsb
application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.macroEnabled.12                            xlsm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet         xlsx
application/vnd.ms-excel.template.macroEnabled.12                         xltm
application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.template      xltx

Apache MIME ku darista nooca (For the domain owner with at least FTP accessusing .htaccess file)

Add the following text to your domain’s .htaccess faylka, most commonly in an httpdocs/ directory

AddType application/vnd.ms-word.document.macroEnabled.12 docm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document docx
AddType application/vnd.ms-word.template.macroEnabled.12 dotm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.template dotx
AddType application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.template.macroEnabled.12 potm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.template potx
AddType application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.addin.macroEnabled.12 ppam
AddType application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slideshow.macroEnabled.12 ppsm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow ppsx
AddType application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12 pptm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation pptx
AddType application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slide.macroEnabled.12 sldm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slide sldx
AddType application/vnd.ms-excel.addin.macroEnabled.12 xlam
AddType application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.binary.macroEnabled.12 xlsb
AddType application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.macroEnabled.12 xlsm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet xlsx
AddType application/vnd.ms-excel.template.macroEnabled.12 xltm
AddType application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.template xltx
Share
Thursday, January 01st, 2009 | Qoraa:

Sida muuqata, what operating system you use can say a lot about you. If you’re using some form of *nix, which distro you’re using can say a lot as well. Redundancy aside, I believe that a Linux distribution depends absolutely on its package management and distribution system.

I liked apt-get (1, 2) but there was some technical problem at some point and it caused me to use aptitude instead. Using aptitude is slightly easierit has more features automated into single, logical, commands where apt-get requires separate commands. Aptitude also has a curses-based GUI. If you’re not using the GUI then, other than brevity in terms of number of commands to learn, there is apparently no technical reason to prefer one over the other. Aptitude and apt-get serve K/X/Ubuntu iyo Debian iyo sidoo kale. From this point, I use the names Kubuntu and Ubuntu in a loosely interchangeable fashion.

In my use of CentOS (based on Red Hat), I’ve found I like yum. It seems to work in much the same as aptitudeone command to rule them all. It has some rather annoying default behaviour I’m not going to get into here as its most likely because I’m just not used to it. At least from a technical perspective, it is very good. I believe that Fedora also makes use of yum though my experience with Fedora is very limited.

the theory

Fedora and Ubuntu are in a class of distributions that have a fairly rigorous release cycle. Ubuntu 8.10 (the version is named so for the year and month of its release) will not, except for major bugs and minor changes, have another major update until the next version, Jaunty Jackalope. Ubuntu users have the latest versions of most software on their desktops right now. In the months preceding the next release, however, they’re not going to be so lucky unless they like using “beta” releases. As I’m not very familiar with Fedora, I’m not going to bother going into its release cycle.

These 2 distributions are also within a class of distributions known asbinary” ama “binary-baseddistributions. This means that when you download an update, the files that are downloaded are precompiled and should run on anysupportedhardware. This isn’t specifically optimised for your desktop’s hardware, for example, your processor. Perhaps you have an AMD processor which has extra instruction support which Intel CPUs do not have. The reverse could also be true. For this reason, a binary-release distribution cannot optimise for one particular brand of hardware. Regardless of thisnon-optimisation”, it should run at a decent pace.

the practice!

Ku saabsan 2 years ago I started using Kubuntu. After a few months of working with it, I started to learn more about its specifics. I’m not much of a fan of using GUI tools to update the system when, ultimately, its all happening on the command-line anyway. The GUI tools just hide the complexity I don’t mind seeing.

I ended up making a bash qoraalka, update, which would run all the steps required to get aptitude to just go ahead and upgrade already, kthx?©, perhaps stopping along the way to back up my configuration, remount the NFS network share where we keep an on-site repository, back up the local cache of aptitude’s installed packages, do some folder-link shuffling to use a local copy if the network share couldn’t remount, sync between the local copy and the network share if the previous update had a network share issue, and update lists of packages in the repository. In general, it wouldn’t go ahead if there were any errors though, as you can tell, this script became a messy beast that went above and beyond the original requirements. It worked well for me.

Until the day came to update between Kubuntu 6.10 si ay u 7.04. I did this manually though, not with the script.

I ended up reinstalling from scratch as a result of the mess that ensued. At least, as a backup administrator should do well to demonstrate, it was easy to recover everything I really needed. 🙂

What else is out there?

Even before I had to reinstall Kubuntu, I was introduced to another distribution called Gentoo. There are 2 very distinct differences between Gentoo and Ubuntu’s update system. The first is that Gentoo is a source-based distribution. This means that when you update a package, the package manager downloads the source and compiles everything, hopefully optimising it for your system. This, I think, is very cool. The downside to this is that compiling everything takes a very long time.

Here are my (very unscientific) estimates for the length of time it takes to install a basic GUI OS to a desktop from installation media, excluding extraneous drivers (for example, the latest 3D graphics drivers):

OS: minmax (median)

Windows Vista: 15 – 30 (20) minutes

Ubuntu: 15 – 40 (20) minutes

Gentoo: 3 – 40 (6) hours

Gentoo also requires much tinkering with the config files in order to get things workingthis is another reason for the extremely long delay between inserting the CD and booting your awesome* new desktop. Popular applications have binary packages available for downloadthough this isn’t a default option.

They see me rollin

There is one more very important distinction Gentoo has from most other distributions. It is arolling-releasedistribution. This means that there isn’t any rigorous version orreleasethat the distribution adheres to. If you install Gentoo todayif you finish installing Gentoo today, you’re probably going to have the latest version of all the applications you installed. If some obscure application gets a major update tomorrow, within a few days, if you update your system, you’re going to have that latest version on your desktop.

The difference between this rolling release and theotherdistributions is rather staggering. Tusaale ahaan: If KDE 4.2 were to be released tomorrow, you’d probably have to wait less than 2 weeks for it to be available on Gentoo. Ubuntu users might have to wait till 9.04 – that’s a 4-month wait.

Something more suitable?

Personally, I’m not willing to put in the 40 hours of effort to get my system working the way I want it to. My colleague had to reinstall recently for some obscure reason and it turns out he wasn’t willing to put in the 6 hours (he’s more experienced with Gentoo) of effort to get his system back to how it was running either. Instead, Arch Linux caught his eye. Arch Linux is a rolling-release (like Gentoo), binary-based (like Ubuntu) distribution. Its packages (iyo sidoo kale, the vast majority of them) don’t need much tinkering with their config files to get things working nicely either. Its the best of both worlds!

You still need to know what you’re doing* but if you’ve come to this juncture, it shouldn’t be such a giant leap of faith. Arch Linux’s package manager, called pacNin, has built-in dependency and conflict handling. I use another package manager, yogurt (French for yoghurt), which has very quickly become popular with Arch users. Yaourt enhances the functionality of pacman by allowing you to download and install applications directly from the AUR, ama Arch User Repository. This repository contains scripts that allow you to automatically download and install many applications that would otherwise be completely unsupported by Arch’s own core developers. It downloads and compiles the package into a chroot’d environment. It then packages the chroot’d environment into a pacman-compatible package tarball and uses pacman to deploy it into your system.

Sidoo kale, the AUR supports a voting system whereby popular packages get placed into the more official [community] repository. Yaourt also supports an automated voting mechanism whereby, after installing a package via AUR, it asks if you want to vote for its inclusion in [community].

I estimate that the time taken for my Arch installation was about 90 minutes. I don’t recommend Archlinux for newbies though I do recommend it for any Linux user who’s gotten bored with other distrosand wants to get into the nitty gritty without having to install Linux From Scratch. Arch Linux has been getting pretty popular these days. Its currently at number 14 on Distrowatch.

* IF you know what you’re doing. AND YOU BETTER BLOODY KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DOING!
Share
Tuesday, December 09th, 2008 | Qoraa:

To fail at failing. I recently came across a discussion where a user was advised to run a fail command. The result was, luckily, as follows:

[user@user-desktop ~]$ cd ~/.Trash; sudo rm -rfv *
bash: cd: /home/user/.Trash: No such file or directory
bash: sudo: command not found
[user@user-desktop ~]$

The command cd ~/.Trash changes the directory (ama present working directory) to the /home/user/.Trash folder. Kiiskan, this folder doesn’t exist and so the pwd stays as /home/user/, the folder where all the user’s files and settings are saved.

The command rm -rfv * removes all files in the pwd. Thevpart indicates that it must show verbose output indicating what is being done during this removal process. The prefixed command sudo (substitute user do) has the command run as root. Thus, had the sudo command been functional, user would have deleted every document he had ever saved in his home folder.

Word of advice from a backup admin: backup often. 😉

Share