Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Sehemu 1 – Kuanzishwa – Kuanzisha Foleni rahisi (Baada ya hii)
  • Sehemu 2 – Uhakika Kutambua trafiki – Kuanzisha Guruta Sheria (Coming Soon TM)
  • Sehemu 3 – Vipaumbele na mipaka – Kuanzisha foleni Miti (Coming Soon TM)
  • Sehemu 4 – Monitoring Usage – Upya Foleni – Limiting Abusive Devices (Coming Soon TM)
  • Sehemu 5 – ??? Faida ???

Kuanzishwa

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Kwa kawaida hakuna mtu anajua kwa nini, ambao, au ni nini na kusababisha tatizo – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Wakati mwingine ni ISP – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “maeneo / majengo” matumizi kwamba QoS kusimamia kuunganishwa yao Internet. Moja ni mahali pa kazi yangu, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – kawaida tu nyumbani lakini kwa matumizi mengine uhusiano, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-Mtu (na kuongezeka kwa) LAN. Furaha. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS na

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, kama vile DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Tatua, na kadhalika. Wengi wa hawa kawaida zinahitaji kwamba una vipuri kompyuta uongo kuhusu au sambamba vifaa ruta. MikroTik anauza RouterBoards ambazo zina RouterOS builtin – na wao ni ghali.

Uzoefu wangu na ruta kimsingi ni pamoja na Cisco na MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Allot ya NetEnforcer / NetXplorer mifumo na MikroTik. Maarufu vifaa MikroTik katika uzoefu wangu (zaidi ya muda mrefu mbalimbali vifaa vyao ari waya) wamekuwa zao rb750 (toleo la mwezi mmoja aitwaye “Hex“) na rb950-bodi msingi. Wana wengine wengi available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Nimekuwa walionekana kuelezea vifaa MikroTik kama “90% Makala katika 10% gharama”. Kama mwongozo huu lengo hasa katika SME / Home matumizi, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, kumbuka kuwa MikroTik ruta kufanya si typically include DSL modems, hivyo vya yako zilizopo ni kawaida bado ni muhimu. Kumbuka pia kwamba hii ni si mafunzo juu ya kuanzisha kifaa MikroTik kutoka mwanzo. Kuna mengi ya viongozi inapatikana online kwa kuwa tayari.

Nadharia katika vitendo – hatua ya kwanza

Kuanzisha QoS usahihi, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Jumla kasi uhusiano
  • Jinsi watumiaji wengi / vifaa itakuwa kutumia uhusiano
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Ili kufanikisha juu katika mifano yangu, Mimi kudhani zifuatazo:

  • MikroTik ni kuanzisha na mtandao usanidi ambapo mtandao wa ndani ni 192.168.88.0/24 na uhusiano Internet ni zinazotolewa kupitia PPPoE.
  • Kasi ya uhusiano ni 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps kasi shusha; 2 Mbps upload kasi)
  • Kutakuwa na 5 watumiaji na wengi kama 15 vifaa (kompyuta nyingi / vidonge / Simu za Mkono / WiFi nk)
  • Kawaida downloads zinahitaji kipaumbele cha juu kwa throughput lakini chini kipaumbele kwa utulivu
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • Hakuna watumiaji watatakiwa kipaumbele juu ya wengine

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Rahisi foleni.

Nimekuwa alifanya script short kwamba mimi kuokolewa kwenye vifaa yangu MikroTik kuanzisha foleni rahisi. Ni kama ifuatavyo:

:kwa x kutoka 1 kwa 254 kufanya ={
 /foleni rahisi jina kuongeza ="biashara-usage- $ x" DST ="PPPoE" max kikomo = 1900k / 9500k Lengo ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Nini juu anafanya kikomo ni kasi ya kiwango cha kifaa chochote mtu anaweza kutumia ili “1900k” (1.9Mb) kupakia na “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Maelezo:

  • Sababu ni kwa nini mipaka max ni saa 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Kwa mfano, kwa 100 watumiaji juu ya huduma 20MB nipate kuweka kikomo huu kwa 15Mb au hata kidogo kama 1MB. Hii ni hutegemea jinsi “matusi” watumiaji ni na, kama wewe kufikiri wapi na jinsi gani unyanyasaji hutokea, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Kiambishi awali “biashara-matumizi” katika jina parameter inaweza kuwa umeboreshwa. Kwa kawaida mimi kuweka hizi kwa kutaja jina majengo. Kwa mfano, with premises named “alpha” na “beta”, Mimi kawaida kuweka “biashara-alpha” na “biashara-beta”. Hii husaidia kwa instinctively kutofautisha kati ya maeneo.
  • Parameter DST ina “PPPoE” katika mfano. Hii inapaswa kubadilishwa na jina la interface that provides the Internet connection.

Kuhakikisha wewe Customize script kwa kuwa sahihi kwa Configuration yako. Ila Muswada wa MikroTik na kuendesha – au kuweka moja kwa moja kwenye terminal MikroTik ya nitafanya hivyo.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Guruta sheria. Sheria hizi kutumika kubaini / kuainisha trafiki mtandao ili kufanya finer-grained QoS iwezekanavyo.

Kushiriki
Category: random
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