Archive for » September, 2015 «

Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:
  • Sehemu 1 – Kuanzishwa – Kuanzisha Foleni rahisi (Baada ya hii)
  • Sehemu 2 – Uhakika Kutambua trafiki – Kuanzisha Guruta Sheria (Coming Soon TM)
  • Sehemu 3 – Vipaumbele na mipaka – Kuanzisha foleni Miti (Coming Soon TM)
  • Sehemu 4 – Monitoring Usage – Upya Foleni – Limiting Abusive Devices (Coming Soon TM)
  • Sehemu 5 – ??? Faida ???

Kuanzishwa

The first problem one usually comes across after being tasked with improving an Internet connection is that the connection is overutilised. Kwa kawaida hakuna mtu anajua kwa nini, ambao, au ni nini na kusababisha tatizo – except of course everyone blames the ISP. Wakati mwingine ni ISP – but typically you can’t prove that without having an alternative connection immediately available. I currently manage or help manage four “maeneo / majengo” matumizi kwamba QoS kusimamia kuunganishwa yao Internet. Moja ni mahali pa kazi yangu, two are home connections, and the last one is a slightly variable one – kawaida tu nyumbani lakini kwa matumizi mengine uhusiano, for a weekend every few months, it becomes a 140-Mtu (na kuongezeka kwa) LAN. Furaha. 🙂

MikroTik RouterOS na

MikroTik'S RouterOS is very powerful in the right hands. Many other routers support QoS but not with the fine-grain control MikroTik provides. Alternatively you could utilise other Linux-based router OS’s, kama vile DD-WRT, Smoothwall, Tatua, na kadhalika. Wengi wa hawa kawaida zinahitaji kwamba una vipuri kompyuta uongo kuhusu au sambamba vifaa ruta. MikroTik anauza RouterBoards ambazo zina RouterOS builtin – na wao ni ghali.

Uzoefu wangu na ruta kimsingi ni pamoja na Cisco na MikroTik – and my experience with QoS is primarily with Allot ya NetEnforcer / NetXplorer mifumo na MikroTik. Maarufu vifaa MikroTik katika uzoefu wangu (zaidi ya muda mrefu mbalimbali vifaa vyao ari waya) wamekuwa zao rb750 (toleo la mwezi mmoja aitwaye “Hex“) na rb950-bodi msingi. Wana wengine wengi available and are relatively inexpensive. In historical comparison with Cisco’s premium devices, Nimekuwa walionekana kuelezea vifaa MikroTik kama “90% Makala katika 10% gharama”. Kama mwongozo huu lengo hasa katika SME / Home matumizi, inexpensive makes more sense. If you’re looking at getting a MikroTik device, kumbuka kuwa MikroTik ruta kufanya si typically include DSL modems, hivyo vya yako zilizopo ni kawaida bado ni muhimu. Kumbuka pia kwamba hii ni si mafunzo juu ya kuanzisha kifaa MikroTik kutoka mwanzo. Kuna mengi ya viongozi inapatikana online kwa kuwa tayari.

Nadharia katika vitendo – hatua ya kwanza

Kuanzisha QoS usahihi, you need to have an idea of a policy that takes into account the following:

  • Jumla kasi uhusiano
  • Jinsi watumiaji wengi / vifaa itakuwa kutumia uhusiano
  • The users/devices/services/protocols that should be prioritised for latency and/or throughput

Ili kufanikisha juu katika mifano yangu, Mimi kudhani zifuatazo:

  • MikroTik ni kuanzisha na mtandao usanidi ambapo mtandao wa ndani ni 192.168.88.0/24 na uhusiano Internet ni zinazotolewa kupitia PPPoE.
  • Kasi ya uhusiano ni 10 / 2Mbps (10 Mbps kasi shusha; 2 Mbps upload kasi)
  • Kutakuwa na 5 watumiaji na wengi kama 15 vifaa (kompyuta nyingi / vidonge / Simu za Mkono / WiFi nk)
  • Kawaida downloads zinahitaji kipaumbele cha juu kwa throughput lakini chini kipaumbele kwa utulivu
  • Gaming/Skype/Administrative protocols require high priority with both latency and throughput
  • Hakuna watumiaji watatakiwa kipaumbele juu ya wengine

The first and probably quickest step is to set up what RouterOS refers to as a Rahisi foleni.

Nimekuwa alifanya script short kwamba mimi kuokolewa kwenye vifaa yangu MikroTik kuanzisha foleni rahisi. Ni kama ifuatavyo:

:kwa x kutoka 1 kwa 254 kufanya ={
 /foleni rahisi jina kuongeza ="biashara-usage- $ x" DST ="PPPoE" max kikomo = 1900k / 9500k Lengo ="192.168.88.$x"
}

Nini juu anafanya kikomo ni kasi ya kiwango cha kifaa chochote mtu anaweza kutumia ili “1900k” (1.9Mb) kupakia na “9500k” (9.5Mb) download.

Maelezo:

  • Sababu ni kwa nini mipaka max ni saa 95% of the line’s maximum speed is that this guarantees no single device can fully starve the connection, negatively affecting the other users. With a larger userbase I would enforce this limit further. Kwa mfano, kwa 100 watumiaji juu ya huduma 20MB nipate kuweka kikomo huu kwa 15Mb au hata kidogo kama 1MB. Hii ni hutegemea jinsi “matusi” watumiaji ni na, kama wewe kufikiri wapi na jinsi gani unyanyasaji hutokea, you can adjust it appropriately.
  • Kiambishi awali “biashara-matumizi” katika jina parameter inaweza kuwa umeboreshwa. Kwa kawaida mimi kuweka hizi kwa kutaja jina majengo. Kwa mfano, with premises named “alpha” na “beta”, Mimi kawaida kuweka “biashara-alpha” na “biashara-beta”. Hii husaidia kwa instinctively kutofautisha kati ya maeneo.
  • Parameter DST ina “PPPoE” katika mfano. Hii inapaswa kubadilishwa na jina la interface that provides the Internet connection.

Kuhakikisha wewe Customize script kwa kuwa sahihi kwa Configuration yako. Ila Muswada wa MikroTik na kuendesha – au kuweka moja kwa moja kwenye terminal MikroTik ya nitafanya hivyo.

In my next post I will go over setting up what RouterOS refers to as Guruta sheria. Sheria hizi kutumika kubaini / kuainisha trafiki mtandao ili kufanya finer-grained QoS iwezekanavyo.

Kushiriki
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Thursday, September 17th, 2015 | Author:

Faragha, Muda, Fedha

Mimi si kama amri debit. Sijawahi walipenda wazo kwamba chombo mwingine unaweza, katika mapenzi, kuchukua karibu kiasi chochote cha fedha yangu (vizuri … chochote ni inapatikana). mwenzake alisema suala hilo na MTN zingeepukwa alikuwa mimi imekuwa kutumia ili debit. Labda “urahisi” sababu ni kitu mbaya kama.

Nadhani penultimate swali hapa ni kama au unataka urahisi na wanaweza kuamini taasisi (katika kesi hii kwa fedha yako) – au kama huwezi imani yao na wako tayari kuacha kwamba urahisi. Katika kesi yangu, hata mimi bado swali urahisi, Mimi kujifunza njia ngumu na MTN kuwa ni doubly inaweza kuwa hazifai kwa kuwa dunia yako kushikamana kupunguzwa kwa “kijijini kisiwa” hadhi. Karibu kila mtu leo ​​huenda na sababu ya urahisi.

Urahisi

Kwa upande mwingine, sasa muda mrefu uliopita, I had a dispute with Planet Fitness ambapo urahisi ilikuwa upanga mbili-kuwili. Mimi taarifa business mazoezi yao kwa Tume Consumer Malalamiko (tangu re-kupangwa kama Taifa Matumizi ya Tume) and never got feedback from them. The gist of the issue is that Planet Fitness’s sales agent lied to me and a friend in order to get more commission/money out of my pocket.

Mimi nina Ugunduzi Vitality mwanachama ambayo inatoa faida nyingi, ikiwa ni pamoja na viwango vya juu ya kupunguzwa bidhaa Premium – wengi wao wakiwa yanayohusiana na afya bila shaka, as Discovery is a Medical Aid/Health Insurance provider. Ili kuiweka tu, Ugunduzi ni wa kushangaza. Vitality faida za kufunika uanachama mazoezi ambayo zaidi ni pamoja na Sayari Fitness. You still have to pay something, ishara ndogo ya aina, kwa Discovery, kwa ajili ya uanachama mazoezi. Lakini, baada ya yote, wao wanataka mimi kuwa na afya, so they don’t mind footing the bulk of the bill. Lakini, inaonekana, hii ina maana Planet Fitness’ mawakala wa mauzo hawapati tume!

Hivyo ni nini matokeo haya katika? Matokeo yake ni kwamba PF mauzo wakala alinipa takwimu umechangiwa kwa “Vitality-msingi” uanachama. Yeye alisema uongo. Kisha alikuwa na mimi kusaini mistari ya nukta kwa bei umechangiwa ya “mara kwa mara” uanachama (ndiyo, ni kweli zaidi kuliko hata taarifa ya mara kwa mara ingekuwa gharama), ending up about 4 na 5 mara kadri uanachama Vitality makao.

Epiphanies

Some time in 2011 Mimi hatimaye wisened hadi gharama mimi ilitakiwa kuwa kulipa. Discovery nina uhakika itakuwa si kuwa na furaha sana kuhusu fiasco huu. Nalisema na Meneja katika mazoezi, na nilikuwa na uhakika kwamba mkataba mzima utaondolewa. Mimi si mmoja kwa vurugu … isipokuwa kwa ajili ya mchezo wake wa … katika Octagon … lakini baada ya ziara yangu 5 kwa Meneja wa kuuliza kwa nini Daraja Debit walikuwa bado yanatokea, yeye aliniambia mimi nilishangazwa hakuwaleta silaha pamoja nami kwa ajili ya ziara. Baada chache ziara zaidi, Meneja kweli alikuwa kushoto Planet Fitness na akanieleza kuwa “mkataba” was between myself and Head Office and that the local gym, inaonekana operesheni franchise-style, alikuwa kidogo hakuna kusema kuhusu kama au inaweza kuwa kufutwa. Kama Makao Makuu alisema hakuna, Bahati mgumu.

By this point I’d lost it. I had my bank put a kuacha kwa amri debit. It was a huge schlep: I had to contact the bank every month because the debit order descriptions would change ever so slightly. It also cost me a little every couple of months to “kurejesha” the blocking huduma. Siwezi kusaidia lakini kufikiri mfumo wa benki inasaidia maneno ya kawaida lakini wafanyakazi si lazima kujua jinsi ya kutumia hiyo.

Technically I’m still waiting on the CCC to get back to me (kamwe kilichotokea – na bila shaka walikuwa re-kupangwa kama ilivyoelezwa hapo juu ili kesi pengine akaanguka kupitia nyufa). Bila shaka, na hatua hiyo PF pia alitaka Svartlistade mimi kwa ajili ya kulipa!

Shujaa isiyotarajiwa

Kutaja usiokuwa wa mpangilio wa suala ili Discovery (Nadhani aliwaita kuhusu meno ziara) ulisababisha callback na mmoja wa mawakala Discovery ya. Wao kisha akaniuliza kuelezea tatizo, kwa kina na kwa maandishi, bora kueleza kwa mtazamo wangu yale yaliyotokea. Mimi wajibu. Ni zinageuka mimi alikuwa na haki kuhusu wao kutokuwa na “furaha sana” kuhusu hilo. Kwa kweli wao kweli hawakuwa kama hayo. About three weeks later, Planet Fitness kufidiwa nami katika FULL kwa fedha zote kwamba aliyewahi kuwa kulipwa kwao.

Ugunduzi ni Ajabu. 🙂

Kushiriki