Archive for the Category » 计算 «

星期天, 8月4日, 2013 | 笔者:

我有一个停电影响到我的服务器的大型 MD RAID 排列. 而不是让服务器作为一个整体将下降,而等待它完成 fsck的, 我曾用它来启动无大阵,所以我可以手动运行fsck.

但, 手动运行时,我意识到我没有办法知道它在多大程度上是的,它需要多长时间才能完成. 这是如此大的阵列特别成问题. 随着一点点搜索,我发现的尖端 调用fsck的时候添加-c参数. 我找不到这个文件中却: fsck的 –帮助没有表现出这样的选项.

该选项原来是特定于ext4, 从而显示了一个百分比的指标一个功能完善的进度条. 要查找的信息, 而不是 “fsck的 –帮助” 或 “男人的fsck”, 你必须输入 “使用fsck.ext4 –帮助” 或 “男子使用fsck.ext4”. 🙂

分享
星期天, 8月4日, 2013 | 笔者:

历史

发生了许多变化,因为我上次提到的我 个人服务器 – 它已经发展的跨越式发展 (它现在有一个7TB MD RAID6) 它最近被重建 Ubuntu的 服务器.

从来没有一个错误. Arch Linux的已经教了我这么多关于Linux (并会继续这样做在我的其他桌面). 但拱肯定需要更多的时间和精力比我想在服务器上花费. 理想情况下,我宁愿能够忘掉了一段时间的服务器,直到电子邮件提醒说 “嗯 … 有一对夫妇的更新,你应该看看, 哥们儿。”

空间是不是免费的 – 既不是空间

机会迁移到Ubuntu是事实,我已经用完 SATA 端口, 所需的端口,以将硬盘驱动器连接到计算机的其余部分 – 该7TB RAID阵列使用了大量的端口! 我什至放弃了我的 老200GB硬盘,因为它采取了这些端口之一. 我也警告收件人的磁盘 SMART 监测表明,它是不可靠的. 作为一个临时的解决办法缺乏的SATA端口, 我什至服务器的操作系统迁移到一组四个USB记忆棒的MD RAID1. 疯狂的. 我知道. 我是不是太高兴的速度. 我决定出去买一个新的可靠的硬盘驱动器和SATA扩展卡,用它去.

服务器的主拱约7GB的磁盘分区是使用. 一大块,是一个 交换 文件, 缓存数据 和其他杂项或不必要的文件. 总体的实际大小的操作系统, 包括 /家 夹, 只有2GB. 这促使我寻找到超快速 SSD 驱动, 心想也许一个较小的一个,也许就不会那么昂贵. 原来,最便宜的非固态硬盘驱动器,我能找到的实际成本 更多 比这些相对小的固态硬盘之一. 我耶. 🙂

精选? 哇?!

在选择操作系统, 我已经决定了它不会是凯旋门. 出的所有其他流行的发行, 我最熟悉与Ubuntu CentOS的. Fedora的 也有可能 – 但我还没有认真考虑它的服务器. Ubuntu的赢得了圆.

接下来我不得不做出的决定没有想到我,直到 无处不在 (Ubuntu的安装向导) ,我问它:: 如何设立 分区.

我是新人在Linux中使用固态硬盘 – 我很清楚,不正确地使用它们的陷阱, 主要是由于到他们差长寿风险,如果误用.

我不想使用一个专用的交换分区. 我打算升级服务器主板/ CPU /内存不是太遥远的将来. 在此基础上,我决定把交换的交换文件在现有的MD RAID. 掉期不会特别快,但其唯一的目的是为这个难得的机会,当事情错了,以及内存是不是.

这给我留下给 根路径 出了一个完整的60GB 英特尔 330 SSD. 我认为分离/家,但它只是似乎有点毫无意义, 给出了如何很少有人在过去使用的. 我第一次设立分区 LVM – 我最近一直在做的,每当我设置一台Linux机器的东西 (真, 没有任何借口不使用LVM). 当它到达的部分,我将配置文件系统, 我点击下拉,本能地选择ext4的. 然后,我发现BTRFS在同一列表. 挂在!!

但是一个什么?

Btrfs文件系统 (“黄油EFF-ESS”, “更好的效率ESS”, “蜜蜂树EFF-ESS”, 在当天或任何你喜欢的) 是一个相对较新的文件系统,以使Linux的开发’ 与当前的文件系统技术文件系统功能回到正轨. 现有的大的山的文件系统, “转” (当前版本的ext4) 很不错 – 但它被限制, 停留在一个旧的范式 (想到一个全新的 F22猛禽 与. 一个 F4幻影 与半jested的企图相当的升级) 并不太可能是很长的文件系统,如新企业能够竞争 甲骨文的ZFS. Btrfs文件系统仍然有很长的路要走,仍处于实验 (这取决于谁你问什么,你需要的功能). 许多人认为它是稳定的基本使用 – 但没有人会作出任何保证. 和, 当然, 大家都在说,制造和测试备份!

Mooooooo

最根本的区别分机和btrfs的是,BTRFS是一个 “牛” 或 “写时复制” 文件系统. 这意味着数据的文件系统的内部实际上是从来没有故意覆盖. 如果你写一个修改文件, btrfs将写你的更改到新的位置在物理介质上,将更新内部指针指到新的位置. Btrfs文件系统更进了一步,这些内部指针 (被称为元数据) 是 牛. 旧版本的分机简单地覆盖了数据. ext4的使用日志,以确保不会发生腐败的AC插头在最不合时宜的时刻被抽出. 该杂志的查询结果类似数量的步骤中所需的更新数据. 随着SSD, 不管你使用什么样的文件系统底层硬件的工作类似的牛过程. 这是因为SSD驱动器实际上并不能覆盖数据 – 他们必须将数据复制 (你的变化) 到一个新的位置,然后完全擦除旧块. 在这方面优化的SSD甚至可能不会删除旧的块,而是简单地做了一张字条给擦除块,在以后的时间时,事情并没有这么忙. 最终的结果是,固态硬盘驱动器非常适合与一头牛文件系统,不执行,以及与非牛文件系统.

为了使事情有趣, 牛在文件系统中很容易齐头并进一个功能叫做重复数据删除. 这使得两个 (或以上) 要被存储的相同的数据块只使用一个单一的副本, 节省空间. 与牛, 如果重复数据删除的文件被修改, 修改后的文件的数据将被写入到不同的物理块,将不会受到影响单独的双床.

牛反过来又使 快照 相对容易实现的. 快照时,系统只记录新的快照卷内的所有数据和元数据的重复. 与牛, 进行更改时,, 快照的数据保持不变, 文件系统的状态,在制作快照的时间可以维持一个一致的看法.

新朋友

与上面记, 特别是Ubuntu已经BTRFS作为安装时的选项, 我想这将是一个很好的时间潜入Btrfs和探索出一条小. 🙂

部分 2 即将推出 …

分享
星期一, 10月29日, 2012 | 笔者:

似乎, 在无限的智慧, 谷歌 有一个安全功能,可以阻止应用程序访问或使用您的谷歌帐户. 我可以看看谷歌的用户,这可能是一个问题, 尤其是他们的 GTalk的Gmail的 用户. 在我的情况下,它是 洋泾浜 有一个问题, 叽里咕噜 服务 (这是技术上的一部分,GTalk的). 后一点,我找到了解决办法 . 我很惊讶于怎么老问题是,这个功能已经存在多久!

要解除锁定的帐户,并在网上得到您的应用程序, 使用Google的验证码图片页面 这里.

分享
星期四, June 03rd, 2010 | 笔者:

Why I’ve left MTN

So I’ve been shopping around in a non-serious fashion in the last few months trying to figure out how best to leave MTN and how get the best deal for me. I don’t like MTN since I became anirate“, as I might call such a customer in the ISP industry. MTN’s Customer-Service Call Centre had rarely been helpful or knowledgeable on their own systems. The final straw however was when their systems let me screw myself over and Customer Service was as helpful as a dead redshirt:

I had a billing issue where, admittedly, it started of my own fault. MTN has a feature where you can call in to find out the amount owing on your account. Only, as Murphy would have it, this amount was the amount owing on the account but the last amount that was billed.

So one month my account was about R900. I called the number, mis-heard R500, paid the amount I thought I should: R500. 15 days later MTN suspended my account. No wrong done, right? Wrong.

First off, I received no notification of any kind. An sms would make the most sense, especially since it would cost MTN almost no resources: “Your account xyz is in arrears by R400. Please contact blah blah blah”. They could phone me, they could email me, something, but nothing of the sort happened. Suspend without Prejudice. Thats the best way to get the customer’s attention!

Now, not only could I not make calls and sms’s, I could not receive calls or sms’s. Further, I could not even call MTN’s toll free phone number. I had to use someone else’s phone to get to the bottom of the problem. After two days of haggling I finally found a lady kind enough to re-enable the account. Ten days later my salary goes in, I call the same number and hear a number close toR900”. I think to myself maybe I should double-check juuuust in case I mis-heard. I call again, I hear the same number again. Right. Pay the R900. Fifteen days later, my phone is suspended AGAIN. WTH?

Remember what I mentioned earlier?: “this amount was the amount owing on the account but the last amount that was billed.” So, in spite of the fact that the voice prompt specifically saysPress 3 for Balance Due; [Presses 3] ; The Total Outstanding Balance is; Nine; hundred; 和; #whatever ; Rands; 和; #whatever; cents”, I actually owed them R900 plus the R400 that I’d paid short the previous month. 不, I do not know if MTN has fixed this. I no longer care. Since I figured this out I started waiting for paper statements to see how much was actually due. Interestingly, their paper statements were also wrong. Only they had the opposite problem: “This invoice: R1300in spite of the fact that on the next page it says opening balanceR400”, closing balanceR1300”. Pah! Is it fixed? 再次, I don’t care.

I let them know I wasn’t renewing the contract and I’ve now already ported my number away to Virgin Mobile. Because I want to keep my number and port it elsewhere, the store said I could not putunsatisfactory serviceas the reason for ending the contract but that it should simply sayporting”. Apparently by putting anything else there they might notnoticethat I want it ported. WTF.

What next? (without MTN)

In my research I’ve found that contractdealsare most popular. Typically, you can get a R8000 phone for R800 per month over 24 months with R500-odd worth of airtime per month. This amounts to you paying R19 200 over a 24-month period for a phone worth R8000 which will be obsolete within 12 个月. You will get some airtime every month so you might feel its not a complete loss. However you should also remember that it costs the cellular companies nothing when you make those phone calls. 利润.

There’s a better way

There are much cheaper contracts, contracts for between R50 and R200 which include cheapish phonesphones that work damned well as a phone but won’t let you play games on the train. Most of these contracts actually give you the same airtime value (sometimes more!) as what you are paying. So for R100 you might get R100 worth of airtime plus some free sms’s, and a cheapish phone. The best deals I’ve seen recently have all been for the Samsung STAR, an understated but good cell phone, available from a number of retailers for between R100 and R200 per month. In most cases the deals have included the full amount of airtime. Virgin Mobile has probably the best example here: The cost is R199 per month which includes R200 in airtime and 1000 sms’s (是的, you read that rightone thousand!).

Virginal Service All the Way!

Another reason I’ve gone with Virgin Mobile is a little something no other service provider does: AmixedContract/Prepaid facility. I get R200 in airtime however, if I go over that, the extra just gets added to my invoice. With MTN this could go sky high without the option of a limit! With Virgin, because I asked, it has a limit of R300. 但, I can still add prepaid airtime (with cellphone banking, nogal). No other service provider lets you do this!

Remember that R8000 cell phone I mentioned earlier? My plan is to get the Samsung STAR and spend less than R300 per month. I’ll have saved enough money to actually go and buy a more expensive phone (or laptop) with the cash I’ll have saved! 当然, if you actually use that R800-worth of phone calls, I guess the best available deal is where you spend the R19200 anyway. Maybe at least with a more critical view on your choices you’ll save yourself a good amount of money in future. Good luck in your search for your best deal!

分享
星期四, 11月12日, 2009 | 笔者:

如果你发现自己在更新单个应用程序 Arch Linux的 (一个非常糟糕的主意, 增值税) 而且升级的readline你可能最终沿着线看到错误:
/bin/bash: error while loading shared libraries: libreadline.so.5: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
希望你仍然有一个bash提示符开放,没有关闭他们都. 如果仍, 立即 运行下面的:
pacman -S bash
否则你将无法运行的bash了,因为bash中仍然会链接到旧版本的readline的.

还, 在未来的, 不跑
pacman -Sy application
(蟒蛇在我的情况)
而不是, 运行:
pacman -Syu
这将确保所有的应用程序升级.

亲自, 我认为,庆典应该有一个依赖集说,它需要的ReadLine和旧特定版本同为新的bash, 需要的readline的新版本. 无论, 而明哲保身. 😉

分享