Tag-Archive for » ubuntu «

Sunday, August 04th, 2013 | Author:

Historia

Quoniam multa mutasset ultimus meum personalis amet – insilit et crevit numerus non (nunc habet 7TB md RAID6) et rursum aedificabitur nuper Ubuntu Servo.

Fornicem numquam fuit Errat. Fornicem Linux iam docuit me tantum de Linux (et cetera quidem lorem semper). Arcus autem operam et tempus turpis eget quam lobortis volo manere in. Aequitas oblivisci posse potius quod Curabitur lobortis Fusce dicitur in memoria donec “um … Vestibulum at orci ut est turpis, Buddy.”

Spatium non sit liberum – et nec spatium

Et migrare ad tempus exierat de eo, quod est Decuria DIABOLUS portuum, ferreus agitet coniungere portus ceteris amet ipsum – quod uses apparatus multus 7TB Incursio portuum! Ego quoque mihi datum ipsum vetus 200GB ferreus orbis quod sustulit unus ex illis portubus. Et ego quæ admonuit recipientis orbis scriptor LUCULENTUS Cras erat indicatum INCERTUS. Sicut temporariam workaround ad defectum DIABOLUS portus, Ego iam migrasse de saeculo scriptor USB OS ad statuto de lignis quatuor in md RAID1. Rabidus. Scio. Non gaudet etiam cursu. Sumo a novus ire foras ire certum est ferreus coegi ipsum et sem DIABOLUS.

Ministri prima partitio, Arch of orbis loquebatur de 7GB. Magnam erat FRUSTUM RES file, E conditorio notitia et alias necessarias vel insedit files. Altiore actualis moli OS, possidet /domi folder, erat solum circa 2GB. Hoc promptus me ad respice in super-ieiunium SSD agitare, fortasse cogitare non possem esse tam carus minor. Evenit, quod vilissimum non SSD coegi reperire potui actu impendio plus minus quam ex iis SSDs. Yay mihi. 🙂

Electio? Woah?!

In eligendo OS, Arch iudicatum non esset vellem. Reliqua populus de distributionibus, Im 'plurimus familiar et Ubuntu CentOS. Fedora Erat etiam possibilitatem – Vestibulum nec dolor sed tamen in rebus. Ubuntu vicit rotundum.

Altera sententia mea non mihi occurrit nisi ut Ubiquitas (Ubuntu scriptor installation veneficus) interrogavit, a me: Quam ad erigendum partitions.

Ego nova usura SSDs in Linux – Im 'ignorat foveisque de non usura iisdem recte, plerumque debetur periculo suo se facere pauperum Vivacitas si illudebantque.

Ego non volo utor deditoque PERMUTO partition. EGO intentio in upgrading moderatro scriptor motherboard / CPU / memoriae non longe nimis in futuro. Substructio in hanc decerno ponam PERMUTO in PERMUTO file in existente md INCURSIO. Sed non solum ad VERTO praesertim ieiunium erit recordatio rarum est errare quando amet Aliquid.

Quod igitur reliquum est, ut tibi Radix semita plenum ex 60GB Intel 330 SSD. Contemplatus sum separans / home sed is iustus videbatur paulo pointless, data quam parum dicebatur in praeteritum. Ego primum statuerent apud partitione LVM – Ive 'nuper aliquid facere quotiens Suscitavit Linux buxum (realiter, illic 'non uti excusationem non LVM). Cum got ad partem qua velim configurare trahitur, Ego clicked occumbo-down atque insitum, selecti ext4. Tum ego Animadvertistine, btrfs in eodem list. DEPENDEO!!

Sed quid?

Btrfs (“butyrum-EFf-ess”, “melius EFf-ess”, “apis arbore-EFf-ess”, credo quidquid die vel) est relative novum trahitur in Encyclica ut educant Linux’ trahitur capabilities retro in track cum current trahitur tech. Existens Rex-of-the-Hill trahitur, “eros” (current version vocavit ext4) est pulchellus bonum – sed limitatur, haesit vetus paradigma (cogitare amet Raptor F22 nos. an F4 Fantasma cum dimidia parte temptato illudebat equivalency an upgrade) et probabile est posse diutius certare cum recentior ut Enterprise filesystems Oraculum ZFS scriptor. Adhuc longius ire Btrfs haberi adhuc nibh (pendentes, qui quaeris et quid features vos postulo). Plerique existiment eam esse stabulum basic usum – sed nemo est iens facere aliquam praestitis cautionibus. Et, utique, sulum est dicens ad facere, et periclitandae tergum!

Mooooooo

Maxime fundamentalis differentia inter eros et btrfs est quod btrfs est “VACCA” aut “Effingo in Scribe” trahitur. Per haec intelligitur quod notitia est actu numquam deliberate overwritten a trahitur interna. Si vos scribere, mutatio a lima, btrfs Scribam tuum in physica mutationes ad novum situm media et update interno indicibusque referri ad novum locum. Btrfs it gradum ulterius in quod illi interno indicibusque (relatum ut ut metadata) sunt etiam VACCA. Older versions of eros haberet simpliciter overwritten notitia. Ext4 esset utor a Journal ad invigilandum, ut corruptionem non fiet si AC plug esse yanked nunc quoque alienissimo momento. Ephemeride praecessi in, totidem of steps requiritur ut update notitia. Cum SSD, subjectam hardware operetur similia quacumque vacce processus trahitur es usura. Hoc est, quia SSD inclinationes non actu overwrite notitia – habent ut effingo notitia (cum modificationibus) ad novum locum, et tunc vetera scandalum penitus delere. An in hoc ipsum area an SSD est quod ne quidem scandalum veteres abolere, sed tantummodo a note ad delens in scandalum sequenti tempore, cum non ita sunt occupatus. Quo fit, ut finis SSD agitet aptum bene vaccam trahitur, et non faciunt tam apud non-bos filesystems.

Ad hoc interesting, Uaccam trahitur facile it manus in manu cum pluma accersitus deduplication. Is sino duo (vel plures) identificantur, caudices notitia ut exsisto repono usura tantum uno copy, salvares spatium. Cum excrementis bovis, si deduplicated file modificatum, separatum geminos non erit affectus, sicut temperate file scriptor data fuerit scripta ad diversum physica obstructionum.

VACCA in vicem facit snapshotting relative facilis ad operandam. Cum snapshot factus est in systema mere exscribit novum snapshot quod sit duplicatione omnia indicia et metadata intra eius volumen. Cum excrementis bovis, quando mutationes fiunt, in snapshot scriptor notitia maneat integrum, secundum quod convenit statui et trahitur tempore factum potest dici snapshot.

Fecit amicus recens

Cum superiori in mente, praesertim ut Ubuntu fecit btrfs available ut install-vicis optionem, Cras rhoncus esset tempus bonum intendere in btrfs, et exploraret paulo. 🙂

Parte 2 coming …

Share
Thursday, January 01st, 2009 | Author:

Apparently, what operating system you use can say a lot about you. If you’re using some form of *nix, which distro you’re using can say a lot as well. Redundancy aside, I believe that a Linux distribution depends absolutely on its package management and distribution system.

I liked apt-get (1, 2) but there was some technical problem at some point and it caused me to use aptitude instead. Using aptitude is slightly easierit has more features automated into single, logical, commands where apt-get requires separate commands. Aptitude also has a curses-based GUI. If you’re not using the GUI then, other than brevity in terms of number of commands to learn, there is apparently no technical reason to prefer one over the other. Aptitude and apt-get serve K/X/Ubuntu et Debian bene. From this point, I use the names Kubuntu and Ubuntu in a loosely interchangeable fashion.

In my use of CentOS (based on Red Hat), I’ve found I like yum. It seems to work in much the same as aptitudeone command to rule them all. It has some rather annoying default behaviour I’m not going to get into here as its most likely because I’m just not used to it. At least from a technical perspective, it is very good. I believe that Fedora also makes use of yum though my experience with Fedora is very limited.

the theory

Fedora and Ubuntu are in a class of distributions that have a fairly rigorous release cycle. Ubuntu 8.10 (the version is named so for the year and month of its release) will not, except for major bugs and minor changes, have another major update until the next version, Jaunty Jackalope. Ubuntu users have the latest versions of most software on their desktops right now. In the months preceding the next release, however, they’re not going to be so lucky unless they like using “beta” releases. As I’m not very familiar with Fedora, I’m not going to bother going into its release cycle.

These 2 distributions are also within a class of distributions known asbinary” aut “binary-baseddistributions. This means that when you download an update, the files that are downloaded are precompiled and should run on anysupportedhardware. This isn’t specifically optimised for your desktop’s hardware, for example, your processor. Perhaps you have an AMD processor which has extra instruction support which Intel CPUs do not have. The reverse could also be true. For this reason, a binary-release distribution cannot optimise for one particular brand of hardware. Regardless of thisnon-optimisation”, it should run at a decent pace.

the practice!

About 2 years ago I started using Kubuntu. After a few months of working with it, I started to learn more about its specifics. I’m not much of a fan of using GUI tools to update the system when, ultimately, its all happening on the command-line anyway. The GUI tools just hide the complexity I don’t mind seeing.

I ended up making a bash script, update, which would run all the steps required to get aptitude to just go ahead and upgrade already, kthx?©, perhaps stopping along the way to back up my configuration, remount the NFS network share where we keep an on-site repository, back up the local cache of aptitude’s installed packages, do some folder-link shuffling to use a local copy if the network share couldn’t remount, sync between the local copy and the network share if the previous update had a network share issue, and update lists of packages in the repository. In general, it wouldn’t go ahead if there were any errors though, as you can tell, this script became a messy beast that went above and beyond the original requirements. It worked well for me.

Until the day came to update between Kubuntu 6.10 ad 7.04. I did this manually though, not with the script.

I ended up reinstalling from scratch as a result of the mess that ensued. At least, as a backup administrator should do well to demonstrate, it was easy to recover everything I really needed. 🙂

What else is out there?

Even before I had to reinstall Kubuntu, I was introduced to another distribution called Gentoo. There are 2 very distinct differences between Gentoo and Ubuntu’s update system. The first is that Gentoo is a source-based distribution. This means that when you update a package, the package manager downloads the source and compiles everything, hopefully optimising it for your system. This, I think, is very cool. The downside to this is that compiling everything takes a very long time.

Here are my (very unscientific) estimates for the length of time it takes to install a basic GUI OS to a desktop from installation media, excluding extraneous drivers (for example, the latest 3D graphics drivers):

OS: minmax (median)

Windows Vista: 15 – 30 (20) minutes

Ubuntu: 15 – 40 (20) minutes

Gentoo: 3 – 40 (6) hours

Gentoo also requires much tinkering with the config files in order to get things workingthis is another reason for the extremely long delay between inserting the CD and booting your awesome* new desktop. Popular applications have binary packages available for downloadthough this isn’t a default option.

They see me rollin

There is one more very important distinction Gentoo has from most other distributions. It is arolling-releasedistribution. This means that there isn’t any rigorous version orreleasethat the distribution adheres to. If you install Gentoo todayif you finish installing Gentoo today, you’re probably going to have the latest version of all the applications you installed. If some obscure application gets a major update tomorrow, within a few days, if you update your system, you’re going to have that latest version on your desktop.

The difference between this rolling release and theotherdistributions is rather staggering. Verbigratia: If KDE 4.2 were to be released tomorrow, you’d probably have to wait less than 2 weeks for it to be available on Gentoo. Ubuntu users might have to wait till 9.04 – that’s a 4-month wait.

Something more suitable?

Personally, I’m not willing to put in the 40 hours of effort to get my system working the way I want it to. My colleague had to reinstall recently for some obscure reason and it turns out he wasn’t willing to put in the 6 hours (he’s more experienced with Gentoo) of effort to get his system back to how it was running either. Instead, Fornicem Linux caught his eye. Arch Linux is a rolling-release (like Gentoo), binary-based (like Ubuntu) distribution. Its packages (bene, the vast majority of them) don’t need much tinkering with their config files to get things working nicely either. Its the best of both worlds!

You still need to know what you’re doing* but if you’ve come to this juncture, it shouldn’t be such a giant leap of faith. Arch Linux’s package manager, called pachominis, has built-in dependency and conflict handling. I use another package manager, yaourt (French for yoghurt), which has very quickly become popular with Arch users. Yaourt enhances the functionality of pacman by allowing you to download and install applications directly from the AUR, aut Arch User Repository. This repository contains scripts that allow you to automatically download and install many applications that would otherwise be completely unsupported by Arch’s own core developers. It downloads and compiles the package into a chroot’d environment. It then packages the chroot’d environment into a pacman-compatible package tarball and uses pacman to deploy it into your system.

etiam, the AUR supports a voting system whereby popular packages get placed into the more official [community] repository. Yaourt also supports an automated voting mechanism whereby, after installing a package via AUR, it asks if you want to vote for its inclusion in [community].

I estimate that the time taken for my Arch installation was about 90 minutes. I don’t recommend Archlinux for newbies though I do recommend it for any Linux user who’s gotten bored with other distrosand wants to get into the nitty gritty without having to install Linux From Scratch. Arch Linux has been getting pretty popular these days. Its currently at number 14 on Distrowatch.

* IF you know what you’re doing. AND YOU BETTER BLOODY KNOW WHAT YOU’RE DOING!
Share